Wednesday, June 07, 2006

Marching to the Shan states and Lansang-Laos (c. 1574-1576) (UKIII:12-19)

UKIII: 12b. Marching to Mogaung

In the year (936) 1574 A.D., on the first waning moon of Tidonkyut, they marched to Mokaung and Mohnyin. The Banmaw sawbwa had one army, the Moemait sawbwa had one army (...troops are named for five lines here...) In those fifteen armies there were 800 fighting elephants, eight thousand horses, and sixty thousand soldiers.

When they arrived there, since the Mogaung and Mohnyin sawbwas dared not resist from the town, they fled into the forest with their troops. The king of Ava Thadominsaw together with the fifteen armies that acocmpanied him pitched camp and made Mogaung their base and searched for them but could not find them.

UKIII: 13. Marching to Linzin (Langsang, Laos)

The white elephant owner the king summoned all his younger brothers, sons, ministers, and generals, and spoke to them thus, "Although there is my son Upayit who has to ascend the throne of Langsang which is a Mahanazarat state (??). Yet Banya Tae became (was made) king there that I have sent Banya Dalat to look after affairs there, but that was not successful. Because of this I will march myself and raise my son to the throne." After speaking in this way he made appointments to march to Langsang.

Names of troops from the 7th line right up to page 14 the first paragraph.

In the main army of the white elephant owner, his majesty the king, to those four thousand soldiers who had to guard him from his four dimensions (??), they were given gold shields (dain-lwa-ka) and other shields in various forms and gold spears, and marched to the king's left and right, east and west, one thousand each. As to those 4,000 Indian soldiers, letting them put on their golden turbans with golden flowers, they marched at the four dimensions of the king (??) holding guns. Ordered to wear hats in the shape of ducks heads, four hundred catholic Indians (Portuguese?) had to take along four hundred canons and accompany the king at the four dimensions of the king together with one hundred horses on each side. As to those four thousand infantries, they were ordered to wear short golden helmets and they had to follow 1,000 each on each side (each of the four sides).

As to those sons of ministers and generals who were clever in the art of elephant riding, they had to accompany 100 each on each side., i.e. altogether 400 elephants. From the frontier side Thiritse ya kyaw htin was appointed to be commander and let Nehyandameit to be second in command. From the right side Thetsheikyawhtin was appointed to be commander and Letyanandatu to be second in command From the left side Nandakyaw hton to be commander and Zeyanandameit to be second in command. From the west side Baya kyaw htin was to be commander and Damatthirit to be second in command. In Hanthawaddy, Tarapya, and Tameinseit pon were appointed to look after the city. Banya law and Min situ were appointed to look after the west Bassein region. In that way after arranging, with the dignity of a celestial king, solemnly in the year (936) 1574 A.D. on the 7th waning moon of Tidinkyut on Wednesday he marched to Langsang.

UKIII: 14. The king of Langsang fled and killed those ministers

When the Langsang king Banya The heard that his majesty the king was marching with his elephants, horses, and troops, he hid all those good elephants, and good horses in deep forest and planning to run away with his troops. At that time U Payaza, son of the Langsang king, addressed to his father the Langsang king in this way.

We have ascended the throne of Langsang not because we belong to the king's tribe. When the lord Bya seh sit was no more, there was no one to ascend the throne and reign as king there. There are people who will like us and there are people who will dislike us also. In another way, when they sent ambassadors, we treated them harshly, we spoke to them with wild and excessive words (??). After uttering these words of revolt, it is not appropriate to run away. It will be appropriate only after attacking them elephant to elephant and laying down our lives to overcome them. If we don't have enough daring to attack in this way, we will be in effect destroying our own villages and towns, in effect we will be destroying ourselves. Since we have revolted against the king whether we are going to continue living or die, the only thing that is proper is to lay down our lives and attack them. If we don't have enough daring to lay down our lives, we will be despised by others and Langsang will become their territory.

The Langsang king added, "If I am going to resist and attack them, will it not be difficult. By having considerations upon the situations, we better avoid them for the time being. While they are looking for us and when his soldiers are exhausted and starving, only then will it be appropriate to attack them. If we are going to attack from now, we will not be able to conquer him. All his generals and commanders are ready to lay down their lives for serving them. Because of that, we will try to hide from them for the time being. Will they be able to take away our town like a mat roll and carrying away (??)."

When his son Upayazat hear what his father the king of Langsang had said, he spoke again, " While the Langsang king Byatsehsit was still alive, we attacked the Hanthawaddy soldiers. Only those who were brave enough, attacked bravely by laying down our lives. As to those who were not brave enough, when they saw them, tehy were frightened and could not stand against them that we used to be destroyed several times. That's why they were encouraged. As to now, be selecting from among our relatives, those who are ready to lay down their lives and providing them with about 100 good fighting elephants and eighty thousand soldiers, we will attack Hanthawaddy's soldiers. If we are going to win, let us win, if not let us die. Only when we attack in this way by laying down our lives, we may be able to consider that Langsang is our town. If not Langsang will be their territory."

When the Langsang king had heard this, he spoke again, "With only 100 fighting elephants and 80,000 soldiers, when you say that you are going to attack them who had 4 to 5,000 elephants and 50 to 60,000 soldiers, do you think you will be able to defeat them. During the time of Byasehsit, when Hanthawaddy marched to us several times, they resisted several times, but they were never able to defeat them." When the ministers of Langsang heard these words, they were of two minds. When the king of Langsang realized that his ministers were not united (disunited), he ordered his soldiers to surround over 30 ministers and over 40 young female elephants and they were killed with guns and cannons. Only when those ministers and generals were killed, he fled from from Langsang.

When the white elephant owner, his majesty the king arrived in Langsang, he would like to issue some orders (arrange some afairs, do some things) but there will be no one to receive his orders. He blamed his generals and commanders and got angry with them and spoke thus, "Now the Langsang king has been running away into the forest without resisting, without saying anything, His behaviour of such is just to prologng our time in looking for him and when our soldiers are looking for him like that, they will get sick and starve. Then we will go back. By presuming in that way, he forced all those ministers, rich people, civlians, and monks who were dwelling in Langsang villages and towns to go far away that they had to go. To be able to unite them back all in one is not an easy matter." By speaking in this way, he ordered the formation of a batallion in Main san and again ordered to build lots of barns for storing paddy and had to fill them up by taking paddy from small villages and from remote areas. The only Ne Myo Kyaw Htin one army, Banyakyan Htaw one army, Yazathinkyan one army, Banyabayan one army,, all these four armies were kept with with Upayit in one army. As to all the junctions of roads and places where used to gather they had to hang notice boards with the decrees of the kings. The content of the notice was:

His majesty the king who is owner of gold and silver mines, owner of ruby mines, amber mine owner, and owner of white and red elephants has an order. These ministers, generals, rich people, civilians,, monks who are dwelling in the Langsang kingdom, as to my marching to Langsang for this time is not because I want to destroy the country of Langsang. My son the Upayit belongs to the king's tribe of the Langsang king. When Bya seh sit was no more, only my sone the Upayit is here to ascend the throne (??). but since Banyatae made himself king that when I sent messengers to handle the affairs, he dealt with them harshly and treated them badly that I have come to dethrone Banya tae and raise my own son Upayit to the throne. Not seeing Banya tae, I will not go back anymore. If you don't want to lose your positions and wealth and if you don't want to die, go to Main san where my son Upayit is dwelling." In that way by ordering to write many copies they were posted at the junctions of roads.

As to Upayit when he heard the order of the king by bowing down three times, he addressed in this way. "As to me your slave, because I was seized by your son Maha Upayaza and when I arrived at your royal feet, without surprising me, you treated me as your own slave. As to that merit, I will not be able to refund until I attain Nirvana. In another way as to that Bannyatae, when Byatsehsit was no longer alive, he killed those ministers and their descendants and raised only his real relatives that they had to work. By discussing with them, he is hiding as far as he can that starting from your majesty, all your younger brothers, son, minister, and generals, cannot stay in peace. While you all all are looking for them. I am afraid that you will get tired and getting sick and starving addressed Mahaupayit

After he had what the Upayit had to say, he spoke in this way, "I am marching to Langsang from Hanthawaddy with no other purpose that to raise my Upayit (crown prince) to the throne of Langsang. I will not go back until I've got Banyatae and raised my son the Upayit to the throne."

After speaking he ordered his generals and commanders to march separately and look for Banyatae until they captured him. While they were looking for him, since the soldiers of the Burmese king were everywhere, all the ministers, generals, rich and wealthy people of Langsang, all came to surrender under the royal feet together with their elephants and horses because they could no longer escape from his hands.

As to some ministers, rich people, and wealthy people, when they heard the decree of the king, they came into the army of upait together with their attendance. As to them, their attendance and properties were not taken back. They had to be in peace. As to those who did not hear the decree of the king, because they were afraid they would b killed, they they were hiding with their elephants, horses, and attendants. As t these people when they were caught by generals and commanders, their attendants, and wealth were either being destroyed or taken away that they were sent to the royal feet.

As to those three ministers who ran away from Zinme to Langsang, Banyanan was already dead when he fought elephant to elephant with Salin kyaw htin in Naung Han. As to Banya Lakon, he was killed when he marched along with the Langsang king Bya seh sit to suppress to La White (???). As to Banya Tu Rhyne (???), together with attendants, when he was hiding, he was caught by the soldiers that being handed over to the royal feet. As to the white elephant owner his majesty the king, by letting Banya Tu Rhyne be freed from his bindings, and letting him take a bath and change his clothes that he had to be with ministers and generals and Banyas for paying homage to the king. The king did not feel anything upon them (???). The king talked about happiness and suffering.

At that time Banyaturhyne by standing up he bowed down three times and addressed in this way, "You majesty the king is so mighty (righteous ???). Loyaly and faithfulness has been as if it was written on our forehead (??) by celestial beings (nats) because I was unfaithful to you that and broke the two oaths I've taken that starting from your majesty, all your younger brothers, sons, ministers, and generals cannot stay at rest. By marching right up to Langsang you have to take pain and suffering. At that time because I was afraid of the anger of your majesty who is above all other sovereign kings and I was afraid of various dangers that I dared not approach your royal feet. As to now, by arriving at your royal feet and when you see the faces of your slaves, you consider us as your own slaves, and you encourage us with your great compassion. You have such mercy upon us because you are really a candidate for enlightenment, I went against your majesty, who is filled with glory and might. It looks like the sinning against Lord Buddha by Daewadat. If I am beheaded now and I have to pass away, for sure, I will have to suffer in the four stages of suffering, (i.e. hell)."

The white elephant owner his majesty the king spoke in this way again "I did get angry about what Banya had done, not that I did get angry. But when I see your face, I realize how difficult it is to attain the stage of human life that I find that my anger has dissipated," said the king.

At that time a soldier (gunman) who was from Toungoo, while searching in the forest, he captured over thirty both males and females. As to females, they were tighten on the waist (tied around the waist??) and as to the men they were put in Pintaka (a kind of yoke (?) put on men in disgrace). From among those who were handled in that way, when his majesty the king saw a certain man by saying that that man might be a hero, by giving him ten ticals of gold, he was brought back. Apart from that person, all those people, buffaloe, and cows had to be taken away by those who seized them. As to the one who was redeemed by 10 ticals of gold, by summoning him infront of him, his name was asked.

As to that person, by bowing down three times he said, "My name is Ma nat." "Are you a warrior?" asked the king again. And he replied that he was a warrior. Then the king said, "I have saved you from your suffering. Will you faithfully serve me?" He replied that "I will serve you faithfully." Only then was he administered an oath of allegiance. He was given gifts and the king addressed him, "Now having enticed (drawn) those who were in hiding out, and gathering them in your village. When my soldiers see you and are about to plunder you, just show them this tablet, said the king. Five soldiers were also given to escort them.

By setting them off and when they arrived to Maing Paing, that person was about to go away. Those five soldiers also tried to stop him. That elderly Ma Nat also spoke in this way, "Now I have arrived at my place already, will you be able to stop me? You also are working tfor the king and so am I working for the king. As to those people who are being captured by you, you will have to keep here. As to those people I have captured. I will keep here also. By saying that, those five soldiers keep all those whom they captured and the other also do the same thing. Then only, over 300 and about 400 captives were handed over to under the royal feet.

As to the white elephant owner his majesty the king because he was so pleased that by summoning his generals and ministers and said that his elderly Mainat whom I have redeemed with 10 ticals of gold is really trying his best to work for me by reliazing the grace upon him. He has got over 300 and about 400 captives both men and women. But you ministers and generals, you just received my grace and have not worked hard for me that, it is hard to finish the affairs." By saying that, he presented lots of gifts to that elderly Maing Nat that he had to call his friends and relatives also. Those head men of the villages located nearby also had to be called and when they arrived, an oath of allegiance was adminstered to those headmen, they were also presented with gifts. They they had to call those villagers and when they arrived there over 4,000, and about (up to) 5,000 people both men and women were administered the oath of allegiance that they had to stay peacefully in their own villages. As to that elderly Maing Nat, because the king was so pleased with him, he was vested with regalia and Maing Maw town was given to him.

As to the white elephant owner, his majesty the king, he stayed in Langsang town for quite a long time. When the Lenten season came to a close he spoke thus, As long as I am here in Langsang, the Langsang king Bannyatae will not be daring enough to show his face. Only after I go back will he be daring enough to show his face. Then only will I catch him. By saying that, he went back from Naung Han to Maing San. When he arrived there, he administered the oath of allegiance to those ministers and generals who had taken asylum into Upayit's case, the one who was assigned in Maing San. They were also presented with regalia, titles, villages, and towns accordingly. In that way, by giving the oath of allegiance to Upayit that he be loyal and faithful, one generation after another, he presented the five regalia of a king and the whole of Langsang was given to him that he had to rule over Langsang.

Again he addressed the Upayit, "My dear son, Upayit, because I presume you as if my real son, that by marching right up to Langsang, I raised you to the throne. My son Upayit, if you love me, you will have to love your people. If you desire for my benefit, you will have to desire for all the people's welfare." In that way, he gave lots of instructions and as regards to weighing and measurement, he kept with the standard of Hanthawaddy in the same way. TO be able to repair all those mined pagodas, temples, rest houses, cave pagodas, etc. he gave one hundred viss of silver to the Upayit.

By saying that his son Upayit's ruling alone will not be safe for his son , he kept Banya Kyan, one army, Banya Payan, one army, Banya Byeh, one army, and Bannya Tae Lone, one army, All these four armies were left with his son Upayit. At that time he asked to Banya Tu RHyne whom he captured back in this way." By following after Banya Tae will you stay together with him in Zinme or will you stay in Langsang with my son the Upayit. Before Banya Tu Rhyne could reply, Banya Tae Lone addressed the king, "Your treatment of your slave Banya Tu Rhyne, when he was in Zinme, you gave him regalia, and high positions more than he deserved to get. But he did not know all those honors and good deeds upon him. Instead he was unfaithful and did mischief such that, your majesty also, cannot stay in peach in your golden palace. You have to march to a very far away places and you have to suppress them. As to the ministers and generals, good elephants, and good horses, and good warriors, they were getting tired and many of them were mined (?) already. Because of these facts, to be able to stay in front of you and paying homage to you is a great difficulty for me mixed with fright. By being patient, because of the merits you set the life of Banya Tu Rhyne free, may you have a hundred years of life span and may you be able to rule over all those southeastern region. As to your descendants, i.e. until your grandsons and great-grandson's period, your good deeds will become a a historical fact and will be praised by others always." Because of that, Banya Tu Rhyne had to go back to Zinme together with the Zinme ministers.

In that way by arranging the whole of Langsang town in proper order in the year (937) 1575 A.D. on the 7th waxing moon of Kasone that he arrived back to Hanthawaddy on the 12th waning moon of Waso. As to Bassein Magaung Myat and towns from western regions by presuming that they were so near to Rakhine, Thirit Zeya Naw Ratha and his younger brother Kaung Taein were appointed to watch over those regions.

14. The Langsang kills his ministers and flees

When the king of Lansang Banyathei heard that his majesty the king was marching with elephants and horses and large number of troops, he hid fine elephants and horses, all those that he had, in the deep forest and he arranged to take flight with a large contingent of troops.

The king of Langsang's sone the crown prince (Upayit) addressed his father, "Now that we are ruined (over the states Langsang (???)) because we belong to the clan of the king, when our lord Byasehsit was no more, since there was no one who could ascend the throne to rule as king. There are people who will be with us and there will people who go against us. Looking at it in another way, when the king sent us a messenger to us with a message, we did not address them with nice words, and we were harsh with them. After treating them harshly, we should have run away as we did. The only appropriate course of action is to attack, lay down our lives, and defeat their elephants. If we don't have enough daring to fight all the villages that surround us will be destroyed, and we will be ruined. Since we've already revolted against him, let us be alive or dead (???) (are we alive or dead?) only after we have attacked them and layed down our lives will it be meaningful for us. If we dare not lay down our lives like this, others will blame us and Langsang will belong to them."

The king of Langsang replied to his son, "As you've said if we decide to resist them it will be difficult. If you consider the whole situation it would be best if we avoided them. We must tire them out by having them look for us. Only when they are exhausted should we attack them. If we attack them right now, there's no way we can defeat them. All the ministers, generals, and commanders of the king are ready to lay down their lives for him, so for awhile we must try to hide from him. Will they be able to take our town and carry it away with them like a rolled up mat.

When the king's son heard his father speak thus, he replied. "During the time of the Langsang king Byasehsit, when entered into battle with the Langsang soldiers only those of our soldiers who were really brave fought against them and laid down their lives. With those of our soldiers who were weak and not stronghearted we could not stand and we were defeated most of the time. That's why they are so encouraged (??) (so sure of themselves). As to now by selecting those who will be willing to lay down their lives with us from among our clan and by giving them about 100 good fighting elephants and 80,000 soldiers I will attack the Hanthawaddy king's soldiers. If I am going to defeat them, let me conquer them. If I cannot, let me die. Only if I can attack them by laying down my life, will Langsang belong to us, thus we mus tmarch against them if Langsang is not to be their's.

When the Langsang king had heard his son speak thus, he replied, "When ou say that you are going to attack with 100 fighting elephants and 80,000 soldiers they have about 4,000 to 5,000 fighting elephants and lord of 50 to 60,000 warriors. Will you be able to defeat them? During the reign of Byasehsit when Hanthawaddy marched against again and again, we failed to defeat them a single time."

After the Langsang king had replied in this fashion, and when his ministers had heard him, they were noble-minded from then onwards. As to the Langsang king, when he knew that his ministers were not united anymore he ordered his soldiers to encircle 30 of the ministers (and 40 female elephants (???)) and to kill them with mortars, canons, and guns. Only when those ministers were killed did the king flee from Langsang town.

As to the white elephant owner his majesty the king he wanted to have discussions but there was no one who would come out and have discussions with him. Because of that when he got angry with his ministers and generals he used to blame them all the time. He spok in this fashion, "Now the Langsang king has ran into the forest, he did not offer any resistance against us, he did not have any discussions with us. His behavior is when our soldiers pursue him and when it is prlonged our soldiers will be starved and get sick. They we will have to go back. By thinking in that way because of his chasing away of the Langsang people staying in villages including rich people and monks that they had to go away. As to the fact of gathering them back into one group is indeed very difficult. By saying that he ordered to set up a very big camp in Maingsan and he also ordered them to build lots of barns (warehouses) to store provisions in that by taking all those paddies from nearby villages that have to fill up those barns until they are full. Then only Neimyokyawtin, one army, ......(troop list).... as to those four armies together with the Upayit they were kept in that place. To all that confluence of rivers and junction of roads, the soldiers has to distribute a decree issued by the king to people also (???) The decree read as follows, "The owner of white and red elephants, his majesty the king, who is the owner of gold, silver, ruby, and sapphire mines, issues an order to this effect. As to those ministers, generals, rich people, civilians, and monks who reside in Langsang, as to my marching to Langsang, this time it is not because I want to destroy the towns and villages in Langsang. As to my son the crown prince of Myanmar, he is a worthy candidate to rule Langsang, because he is from the royal line of Langsang kings. After Byasehsit has ceased to exist, only my son the crown prince is fit to rule over Langsang. Binnyathei raised himself to the throne and when I sent messengers to him he treated them harshly, so that I was driven to march here, dethrone him, and raise my own son to the throne. I will not return to my country without laying my eyes on Binnyathei. As to those wish to avoid destruction and avoid having their wealth and all the luxuries and perquisites of their position taken away, enter into the side of my son the crown prince in Maingsan where he is staying now."

By writing in this fashion on various letters, he dared to hang them at the junctions of roads and the confluence of rivers, in short everywhere where people can be found.

As to the crown prince when he heard the order, he bowed down his head three times and addressed the king in this fashion, "As for me, when your son the crown prince got ... and when I arrived at your feet you did not despise me, but you treated me as if I was your own slave. As to those benefits before arriving to Nirvana all the time I cannot be able to compensate. In another way, Binyathei when Byasehsit is no longer alive by killing those ministers who were descended from the ministers' tribe he raised only his relatives to high position that they had to serve him. By discussing with them he was hiding as far as the land is wide (in remote areas) and he is fighting., starting from his majesty the king, together with your younger brothers, sons, ministers, generals, and all te rest, you cannot stay at peace (at rest) I am afraid that while looking for him you may get tired and wither away. I am worried about that." He spoke in this fashion.

When the king has listened to the crown prince speak, he replied, "As to my marching from Hanthawaddy to Langsang, at that time I did not have other plans. It is only to raise my son to the throne that I have marched. Without getting Binnyathei and raising my son to the throne. I will not go back. After speaking thus, he ordered his generals and commanders to march in various directions, to look for Binnyathei. While they were looking for him, the generals, ministers, and wealthy people of Langsang, since the king's soldiers were searching everwhere, (were leaving no stone unturned) since they could not escape by taking their elephants and horses they came to surrender to the royal feet (under the royal feet). As to some of the ministers, generals, and wealthy people, when they heard about the letter, together with their attendants, properties, and utensils. They had to stay peacefully (??). As to those who did not hear about the letter, they were afraid that they would be killed, that together with their elephants and horses and attendants they used to hide as before. As to those people when they were found out by the king's commanders and generals while looking for the king of Langsang by taking their attendants, servants, and property, they were handed over to under the royal feet. As to those ministers who fled from Zinme and entered Langsang, Banya Lagun, Banya Nan, Banya Turaing, of these three ministers, as to Banya Nan, in the past at the place called Naung Haung when he was fighting with the prince of Salin Kyawtin elephant to elephant he was killed, as to Banya Lagun together with Byasehsit the Langsang king, while he was marching to Rawaik to suppress it, he was killed there. As to Banya Turaing together with his attendants and servants, eh was caught while he was hiding and handed over to the care of the king. As to the white elephant owner his majesty the king by ordering to release Banya Turaing from his bindings and ordering him to take a bath and change his cloths that he has to stay together with ministers, generals, and Banya, and had to eat together with them.

The king was not angry with him, he just lectured him about sovereigns and happiness. Banya Turaing bowed three times and addressed the king in this way, " As to his majesty the king, the oath of loyalty administered to me has been as if it was written upon my forehead, because I abolished the two loyalties upon you that starting from your majesty, your sons, your younger brothers, ministers and generals could not stay at rest. By marching right up to Langsang you got into trouble. At that time also the king who is king of all kings and supreme over all other kings because I'm afraid that you'll get angry and I'll suffer with various difficulties that I dare not approach the royal feet. Now, by arriving at his royal feetand when I have to pay homage to the king's face. When you see my face again by considering me as if your real slave when you encourage me with your compassionate words tht means that you are indeed a candidate to become lord Buddha. Now I have committed some transgressions against your majesty the king. It looks like they dared sin against our lord Buddha. If I am killed right now and I have to pass away, I will have to suffer in the four stages of hell."

The white elephant owner his majesty the king replied, "As to your deeds upon me, not that I didn't get angry upon you, I got angry over you (???). When I laid eyes upon your face I had to consider how hard it is to gain the life of a human being. That's why I let my anger dissipate."

At that time the soldier who had to hold the gun from Toungoo he got over 30 about 40 both males and females he put a wood that is locked upon the head (pindaka) (???). As to the females, by tieing them up at the waist, he came to handle all those captives. From among those captives when the king saw the man, by saying that this man indeed had the significance of a warrior or heroe by giving 10 ticals of gold he was redeemed. Apart from that man all those people, buffaloe, and cows, they were taken away by those who could find them. As to the person who was redeemed by giving 10 ticals of silver (or gold ???) he was brought before the king and asked what his name was. That man bowed down three times and said that his name was Mai Na and was asked again whether he was a warrior or a heroe (This paragraph has already been translated, stopping at page 20, the questioning of the king upon the captive.) (See notebook for the last two pages.)

As to the lord of white elephants his majesty the king he was so pleased that he summoned his ministers, generals, and the rest and spoke to them in this fashion, "The old man named Main Nat whom I have redeemed with just 10 pieces of silver coin by knowing the good deed done upon him has chosen to serve me. He got over three hundred and about 400 captives both men and women. You ministers and generals just by enjoying my favors and not working hard for me that these affairs are hard to finish up. Having said this he gave many gifts to the elderly Maing Nat and send him to call all his relatives. He had to go and call those head men of villages located in the region. When they arrived they were administered an oath of allegiance and were given gifts, and were asked to go and call their villagers. When they arrived an oath of allegiance was administered to all the men and women numbering from 4,000 to 5,000 people overall, and they were requested to reside in their respective towns peacefully. Since the king was so pleased with the elderly Maing Nat, together with insignia of office he was given the town of Maing Maw.

As to his majesty the king, the lord of white elephants h stayed in Langsang for a long time. At the end of Buddhist lent he spoke in this fashion, " The Langsang king Banya Tae also if I am going to be here he will not be daring enough to show his face. Only when I return to my country will he dare to reside here openly and expose his body to harm and only then will I catch him."

After speaking in this fashion he went back from Naung Han to Maing San. When he arrived in Maing San he administered the oath of allegiance to those ministers and generals who entered into the protection of the crown prince who had been appointed to rule there. They were given insignia of rank, title, villages, and towns. He gave them the oath of allegiance so that up until his son, his grandson, and his great-grandson rule, that they be faithful and loyal to the king, he gave him those five insignia of rank together with all the things required for celebrating royal ceremonies and the whole region of Langsang.

He said in this way also, "Because I love my son the crown prince as if he is my real son born of my blood that by marching right up to Langsang I raised him to the throne. My son the crown prince, if you love me, you will love your people. If you want to work for my benefit, you will work for the benefit of your people." He gave the crown prince instruction in this fashion.

Regarding the units of measurement, he set a standard basket for measuring the amount of paddy, as well as measures of distance and weight, all these were made the same as those used in Hanthawaddy, the capital of Myanmar. As to those pagodas that sat in ruin, pagodas that had developed cavities in them over the years, monasteries, rest houses, and temples, so that that they could be repaired he handed over 100 viss of silver to the crown prince.

By presuming that his son the crown prince's rule might not be safe, he lef tfour armies with him -- Banya Kyan with one army, Banya Byeh with one army, and Banya Taelone with one army. He asked Banya Tu Rine whom they had caught, "By following Banya Tae will you serve under his royal feet constantly or will you remain in Langsang with my son the crown prince?" After he had asked this but before Banya Tu Rhine had a chance to reply, Banya Tae Lone spoke, "When your majesty raised your slave Banya Tu Rhine to a high position in Zinme the insignia of rank you gave him was excessive, but he did not keep in mind those favors bestowed upon him. Instead he went against someone, against whom he should not have sinned. Your majesty cannot reign over the throne peacefully. Your majesty has to march to far away places to subdue them. Of the many fine ministers, generals, elephants, horses, heroes, and warriors, many of them are exhausted and sick, and are now facing death. By having consideration over these facts, if he is going to serve the king by staying in front of him, he will have to serve with fear. By exhibiting patience, due to the merits gained from setting the life of Banya Tu Rine free -- by having over a hundred years of life span, you will have to rule over the whole southern zone (south east asia) until the reign of your descendants, such as sons, grandsons, and great grandsons, it will be noted as a historical fact. Then the white elephant owner his majesty the king sent back Banya Tu Rine to Zinmeh with the Zinmeh ministers.

In this manner the king arranged the affairs of Langsang town in the year 937 (1579) on the 7th waxing moon of Kasone he left Maing San and arrived back at the capital in Hanthawaddy on the 12th waning moon of the month of Waso. As to those towns such as Banein and Myaung Myat by presuming that they were located close to Rakaing, he appointed Thiritzeya Nawratha and his younger brother Kaung Thein to watch over there.

15. Marching to the Northern Region with a large army:

(1,2) Then only Thamein Yehtinyan one army, ...(troop list; they- marched in three groups along three paths).

(3) As to the troops from the waterway Nandakyawtin one army,...(troop list)....(4) by letting them march in the van then only the white elephant owner his majesty the king by iding in a golden boat built in the shape of a wild Hintha ck with 11 stories of roofs and fully decorated with precious stones he marched.

[ The golden boat was pulled by eight large golden boats from the front and eight from behind. As to 12 golden big boats by loading them with utensils used for celebrating royal ceremonies they had to follow around the king's boat. 16) As to those guards who had to guard the four sides of the [king's compound together with 400 large fighting boats by 1 "loading them with various species of golden shields (Nain, | "Lwa, Ka) and golden spears they had to accompany the king's boat on the left, right, front, and back. (6B) The 100 boats of the Shweisekkwin forces were arrayed around the king's boat ("Shweisekkin" were apparently a group of guards for the king which were positioned in the near vicinity of the king surrounding him. "set" = circular thing, turning on an axis, "I"kwin:" = to go around, make a circuit). (7) As to those four leaders of guards from the four sides of the king's compound, together with the boat they acquired they had to accompany r with the king's boat, one each from the left, right, front, I and back of the king's boat (hlei-mat = ?).

(8) In the king's royal army Nemyokyawtin was appointed to be commander., Zeyakyawtin to be second in command. (9) As to those armies that had to march behind the king... (troop list).... (10) Together with the royal army in all those 18 boat armies there were big boats, Kuyut (??) (obsolete -a kind of boat), Thamon (??) Chinese type of row boat, I Katukunkyin - Chinese big boat built in the shape of a [ Lunkyin bird - altogether they had 200 (500) (??) big iron boats, 1000 boats for carrying provisions, together with 220,000 soldiers.

In the year 937 (1575) on the 7th waning moon of Thadingyut on a Saturday he marched from Hanthawaddy the capital. (1OB) As to two white elephants also by loading upon a two storey building built upon a two story boat they carried along.

(11) As to his son Mahaupayaza, younger brother king of Prome and younger brother king of Toungoo from Hanthawaddy right up to Ava, with golden boats (Shweilawka), they accompanied from behind. (12) Whenever they encamped they r celebrated with a big feast. (13) When the king arrived to Dagon Sandoshin pagoda he invited 101 monks and feasted them,

providing them with the eight sacred possessions of a monk. He also made an offering of four large Takon streamers, and four large Tasaung (structures for holding candles at 1 a temple) "r ( 17) Then onIy by marching from Dagon, when they arrived to Prome he ascended Prome Sandoshin pagoda by riding in a palanquin with a high ~raduated roof (pyathat). (18) He offered up his golden teapot having it pounded into gold leaf and applied to the pagoda.,(19) Marching from Prome when they arrived to the port of Sagu as to the two Shweisetdaw pagodas (literally: the footstep of Gautama the Buddha pagodas) 1 together with pennants and umbrellas the king offered up 12 big Tasaung, and a gold betel box which he had pounded into gold leaf and applied to the pagodas.

(20) Marching from Sagu port when they arrived to Pagan, by ascending Shwezigon pagoda he feasted 101 monks. (21) Together with many other offerings the king offered the eight sacred possessions of a monk. (22) He also made an offering of many pennants to the pagoda. (23) By marching from Pagan when they arrived to Ava, by inviting 101 monks including the abbot Shin Tithathana and feasted them. (24) He also offered many rolls of cloths to be used to make garments or the robes of monks. (Thinkanlya = ?, Katha-ot = ?,Katha = a kind of very thin muslin). (25) To those pagodas such as Shinpyushinhlapunnyat pagoda and those pagodas located inside the town such as Shwozigon and Panya Shwezigon, he offered up pennants, kukkar Muleibwa (decorational flowers -check in Burmese to Burmese dictionary) and lampstands. (26) Then only his son the crown prince, his younger brother king of Prome and the king of Toungoo, together with their 18 armies from Sagaing they marched overland. (27) As to the white elephant owner his majesty the king he marched along the waterway. (28) When they arrived to Motaletpan they stored their boats in Mot ar, forming their boat troops into overland troops, and marched on to Mogaung. (letpan = ?) CUKI I I: 15]

When the Mohnyin and Mogaung sawbwas heard that the forces of the Burmese king were marching on them, they called their relatives, ministers, and generals to Mogaung and addressed them, "At this moment the Burmese king is marching towards us with a strong force. Like a small lantern next to Mount Myinmyo and the whole Sekyawada universe that surrounds it our power is not equal to their' s. What should we do ?" The servant of the Mogaung sawbwa, the lord of Boladain village addressed the sawbwa, "Does anyone dare question the glory and power of the Burmese king ? He has numerous elephants, horses, and soldiers. We will become his servant, he will call us to follow him to Linzin, and we will die there in his tributary state fighting for him away from our home. I say we fight in our own country against the Burmese king and depending on our fortune we may die, but if we die we will die in our own country not his." s

As the ministers, generals, and brave warriors listened to this talk of inevitable death their spirits flagged a little. "By this time," he continued, "it is too late to make an orderly escape with our people and provisions." (i.e. there is not enough time for an orderly flight collecting up all peoples, valuables, and food before they left. Almost every case !if initial resistance on the part of a sawbwa is followed by flight after defeat.) The Mohnyin sawbwa will group together 2,500 of his brave warriors into one army. In this army with 50, perhaps as many as 60 fighting elephants, the Mohryin sawbwa and I will lie in wait for the king concealed in the forest along the trail from Katha to Mogaung and fight him from there. If we win the battle let us win. If we lose let us die on top of our elephants."

The two sawbwas agreed with Boladain. The Mogaung sawbwa was brought to a safe hiding place; Boladain and the Mohnyin sawbwa set off towards Katha with 60 elephants and almost 5,000 soldiers. When they reached a suitable place for ambush they codcealed themselves and waited.

The Burmese king chose to march from Katha to Mogaung along a different path that passed by the village? of Mot a and not the sawbwa's concealed troops. When the king arrived in Mogaung he learned of Doladain's plan and assembled an army together to catch them (troop list).

17. Battle in the Forest:

When the king arrived to the vicinity of the ambushers they surrounded the area and searched for the sawbwa. The Mohnyin sawbwa and Boladain left their hiding place in the forest and attacked the troops of Thadominsaw the king of Ava. The Mohnyin sawbwa died fighting on top of his elephant and the Burmese caught Boladain, 10 of the sawbwa's ministers, and most of the soldiers. They marched back to Mogaung and presented the captured elephants, horses and soldiers to the king.

(6) The king called Boladain before him and addressed him, (7) "The lord of Mogaung and the young lord of Mohoyin have veered from their path of loyalty and gratitude towards the king. They have rebelled and caused trouble. (8) Who are you going to listen to, them or me ?"

(9) Boladain addressed the king, (10,11) "If we follow the Burmese king to Linzin we must die in Linzin. (12) If we do not folIow him to Linzin then we can all die in our own country eYen though we die rebels. So we have chosen to fight against you the Burmese king. We must fight until we die. I took the Mogaung sawbwa and hid him. I made a plan to fight you from Katha but you didn't sarch from Katha so we didn't have a chance to surprise you from where we hid. Because you have strength and power the Mohoyin sawbwa died on his elephant and you captured our elephants and men. If you have a problem you can kill me now. I am doing the right thing so I am not worried about anything."

(20) When the king heard Boladain address him in this manner he did not say anything but instead, after due consideration, appointed Boladain to look after the royal treasury. He ordered his younger brothers and sons to find out where the sawbwa was staying but because no one could be certain where he was hiding they did not catch him. When they failed in their search the king was very angry, so they tried even harder and penetrated the deep forest, forded swift moving rivers, and climbed steep cliffs and mountains searching for him. After a long search the troops and their elephants and horses were starved and exhausted. When the king heard about this he ordered them all to come back. The crown prince with seven armies and the king's son-in-law the king of Ava Thadominsaw with another seven armies are said to have searched for the sawbwa right up to Kanthi the farthest north point in Burma.

(29) The king gathered the sick and injured from among the soldiers and returned to Mogaung. There he called Boladain to in front of him (to his presence), presented him with gifts and asked him to receive the oath of allegiance. After he had taken the oath of allegiance Boladain asked, "I have taken the oath of allegiance. What must I do now ?" The king ordered him to go with his men to find the Mogaung sawbwa.

(35) When Boladain heard his order he got down on his hands and knees and bowed to the king three times and said, "I think that the Mogaung sawbwa will rebel / fight against you again (??). When I heard you were marching to fight us, it was my idea to hide the Mogaung sawbwa. To ambush you along the way was my idea also. Because you are a sovereign king with great glory, might, and authority the events have not occurred according to my wishes and I am have arrived under your feet. The order that you gave me to arrest my sovereign lord is impossible for me to carry out. When I burn the paper that this order is written upon and eat it, it will not digest properly. In this life I cannot help the Mogaung sawbwa. So you can kill me in this life or next life (??). I will not break my faithfulness with the Mogaung sawbwa."

(45) When the king heard the servant of the Mogaung sawbwa speak to him like this, the king told his ministers, "Boladain's village has 70 to 30 houses in it. He was appointed by the Mogaung sawbwa to rule this village so he will always be grateful to him. He even dares to die for him. His 6ratefulness is not like your gratefulness. His gratefulness and wealth is above that of you~' 5. None of you are the same. Have you no shame ?" The king again begged Boladain to help him, "If you refuse to arrest the Mogaung sawbwa yourself can you at least show me where he lives ?" After due consideration Boladain agreed to this, but when the search party reached a camp between Mogaung and Kalei Boladain fled from the camp into the wilderness.

(53) When the king heard of his flight he flew into a rage and ordered the little treasurer to be caught and slaughtered (??). The king changed his tactics and sent for a F~rmer servant of the Mohnyin sawbwa the minister Sawye and told him that because Boladain had fled he was not going to be able to catch the Mogaung sawbwa. Sawye offered his advice, "We know that Boladain committed a great crime. When you caught him you treated him well. Instead of showing gratitude he fled back to his village. The ministers of the M~gaung sawbwa wi!1 tell you where the Mogaung sawbwa is living." When he had listened to the advice given by Sawye the anger that the flight of his treasurer had stirred up in him dissipated and he showered Sawye with gifts including Basous, robes, and the very golden knife that he himself wore at his side.

18. Bannya Tae of Langsang is seized again

In that way, while the king was in Moe Kaung and Banya Tae heard that the white elephant owner his majesty the king had gone back to Hanthawady , leaving the crown prince in Maing San together with the four Bannyas, Bannya Tae Lone, Banya Bayan, Banya Kyan, and Banya Byeh. Because of that he gathered up elephants, horses, and troops again to fight the crown prince and the four Banyas. Discussing with the ministers who took asylum from the Langsang king, with device (???), Bannya Tae and his son were caught.

After seizing Banya Tae and when these four Banyas were preparing to go back to Hanthawaddy, the minister called Banya Tae Lone planned in this way, "His majesty the king knows that I am related by blood to the crown prince and that we love each other. Now the crown prince's rule over Langsang and I will have to rule over Zinme also. Because of that I should not be friendly with the crown prince." With this plan in mind he sent a messeger to the crown prince and addressed him in the following manner, " I address you. We have already seized the rebels of Langsang starting from their leader Bannya Tae, all his ministers, generals, and wealthy people. These people are very cruel and wild. If you allow them to stay in your town in the future, it will create problems for his majesty the king. Because of that he will send Banya Tae and his son together with those ministers, generals, and wealthy people to the royal feet of his majesty the king. That's why bring them down quickly.," asked the Bannya Tae Lone.

As to the Langsang king Upayit (???) he did not hand over those ministers and generals because they all were his relatives. After requesting in that way for two to three times but he did not get them. That's why he called Banya Kyan, Banya Bayan, and Banya Byeh to office and had to discuss with the Langsang king. At that time Banya Tae Lone said in this way " The Langsang king when I am requesting for those captives why don't you give me ? Don't you give me because they are your relatives? Or will you say that they used to conquer over our king their enemy when fighting elephant to elephant? My dear, you too, are captives like we were in the past. BEcause of our king who is filled with glory and might used to have mercy upon those noble people that when he seized without destroying and beheading us, he raised us to high positions. As to my brother, when the Maha Upayaza (the crown prince) and the rest (and his followers) caught you in Maing San and handed you over to the king, without despising you, you were given back teh town of Langsang. Now without thinking to thank his majesty the king, by keeping those stumbling blocks to the kingdom, in the future, in the future are you going to make trouble for his majesty the king? By knowing the fact and if you stay without addressing will that not mean doing against the will of the king? When there is the kingdom's affari, only one should not do that. By discussing with those sages are you not to address them?. When the crown prince had heard him speak, he in turn spoke, "As to all those so-called Banya, since they are my relatives I have taken them back. \As to my taking them back, don't you Banya like it? As to his majesty the king, he raised me to high position because he wanted me to work for him together with all my relatives. Because of that are you (Banya Tae LOne) are just saying that to ruin my relatives?"

At that time, the Lansang king and Banya Tae Lone were arguing with one another for quite a long time. As they were arguing in this way, Banya Kyan, Banya Bayan, and Banya Byeh said that "All the affairs you two have spoke of are all important, but it is better to receive the judgement of his majesty the king. We will take away Banya Tae and his son and those ministers generals, and wealthy people, let them remain as they are." after addressingin this manner they prepared to return to Hanthawaddy. As to the Langsang king Upayit he gave to those four Banyas, one young male elephant, a pair of horses with full saddles, clothing, and ten viss of silver accordingly. As to those four generals, they were given with a pair of horses with full saddles and five viss of silver each. WHen they arrived to Zinme, Banyataelone, had to stay in CHiangmai and had to work for the king.

As to those three Banyas, by taking Banya Tae and his son safely, when they arrived to Hanthawaddy, because his majesty the king was in Moe Kaung at the time that they had to take them to Mogaung and hand them over to the king there. As to the white elephant owner his majesty the king, by setting Bannya Tae free from prison, both of them, father and son, had to live together in peace.

19. (supplement) His majesty the king going back to the capital

His son the Maha Upayazit and and son in law Ta Do Min Saw, the king of Ava pursueing after the running away of the Mogaung sawbwa from Kandi, Kannein, right up to Maing Lone. Because of the cliff of mountains and when they could not ride on elephants they pursued after him by riding on horses. When they reached to a place where they could not ride on horse they travelled on by riding on THan Lyin (??) When they reached to the journey where they could not travel by riding on Tan Lyin, \they travelled on foot with the help of walking sticks. By marching from Mogaung when they arrived to a journey about one month away from Mogaung it was very hard to travel due to a mass of snow (???).

As to those men of snow, they used to melt down during the midday. When they could not get water for cooking, they had to use those men of snow for cooking. When his majesty the king heard these facts, he called back his son and grandson that they had to back to Mogaung. When his son and son-in-law arrived back by taking all those captives, i.e. elephants, horses, and people, together with his younger brother, son, ministers, and generals, in the year (938) 1576 AD the 3rd waning moon of Kasone on Saturday by going back from Mogaung on the 13th waning mooon of Ksaone, i.e. on Tuesday he arrived to the port of Moe Tar Let Pan.

On the 14th waning moon of Kasone, i.e. on Wednesday from Moe Tar by riding on a golden boat he floated down the river. On the 9th waxing moon of Nayon, i.e. on a Saturday, he arrived back to Hanthawaddy. By staying in Yadanapura for two days on the 11th waxing moon of Nayon, i.e. Monday by floating down on the 12th waxing moon of Waso, i.e. on a Wednesday, he arrived back to Hanthawaddy, the capital. About ten days later, as to the Langsang king Banya Tae and his son, together with insignia of rank, they were given with quarters that they had to work in the golden supreme court always.

As to those Banya Kyan, Banya Bayan, and Banya Byeh three persons who came back from Langsang they were given lots of gifts and positions. THose three Banyas said that, "I, Banya Tae Lone and the Langsang king Upayit argued for a long time as to the affairs of taking away our relatives from Langsang. I will loyal and faithful to your majesty said Banya TaeLone. When the king heard these facts, because he was pleased by Banya Tae Lone that the king praised him. He spoke in this way to his ministers, generals, and others.

"O you ministers....because of my glory, I have become lord of those kings who had to be shadowed by umbrellasand as to those kings who are from various states and kingdoms, when they hear about the fact that because of their dialogue with one another as to those badly people, they should behave well by now. As to those who are already good, they should humble themselves well. All the time nobody should dare do any bad thing. Only when they dare not revolt, there will peace and progress in the kingdom that people and monks will be able to practice their religion and they can give alms and start practicing their virtues. Then only will they be able to attain Nirvanan --- the benefits of the king will also will be increasing."

By saying in that way, became he was so pleased by Banya Tae Lone that, by sending messengers to Zinme, he gave Banya Tae Lone, fine basoes, thick cloth, Zaw Karat (a type of cloth), Muri, Ramahti, Hka Ta (all these are names of different types of cloth) etc.


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