Thursday, May 25, 2006

Conquest of Shan States (c. 1555-1557) (UKII:253-268)

UKII:253 About the king’s deed for meritorious act such as making offerings and building pagodas and so on.

As to his majesty the king when he arrived to Hanthawaddy as to the pagoda Yadanamyasigon built in Ketumadi by his father. With the intention that he would like to raise the umbrella of that since it was left unfinished. He offered 5 viss and 35 ticals of gold. By appointing his younger brother Minkaung to make it. As to his father’s abbot. Shin thadama pala he offered up to him the Zetawun golden monastery. Together with 30 surrounding temples he offered up to that abbot. Within that year 917 (1555) during the month of Tazaungmon the king named Dhammapala who had to rule over Sri Lanka island with a message / request to help and prepare over the religion. Because of that he sent lots of gifts, arms, because of his addressing in that way together with the Pitikat thonbon for the things to be kept relics in the form of the teeth of the lord Buddha, Shweitabeit, silver tabeit (begging bowl for monk), golden and silver curry bottle, golden and silver umbrella and lots of rubies and things that should be offered by loading them on a boat. The minister named Yazamanut has to be sent there. As to the royal tooth relic they have to offer it up with rice, curry, lighting lamp, daily. Thus by offering in this way daily by buying a lamp in Sri Lanka with 100 viss of silver they have to offer there. In the year 917 (1555) on the third waning moon of Tabaung that is on a Tuesday while they were raising the umbrella of Eitiyo pagoda by ruining the crown made of rubies thus by making 75 ticals of gold they made a silver umbrella with gold on top and decorated it with 9 types of precious stones the king together with the four limbs of the military marched over there. They received a very big feast also, they suppressed Tamein Tawrama he said if they conquered (?) as he said he would build a town there in the year 917 (1555) he built the first town together with a golden monastery and 40 surrounding temples by building all of them he offered up to the Mahathinkayaza monk. As to the three piles of Buddhist scriptures the Tripikata thon bon together with the Pali Atakata and Nika (commentaries) by copying them down a Burmese, Mon, and Siamese abbot by handing them over upon them (?) they had to teach to people there.

UKII254: The forbidden of offerings in the district of Pagan

They made a mistake in their offerings to Nats. These towns which were included in Burmese territory such as Pagan, Ywatha, Salei, Pakannge, Ngathayaut, Tayintain, Kyaukpadaung, as to those people who were located there. Through the nat of Popa mountain , the spirit of the mountain, by killing buffaloes, cows, pigs, and fowls. By annually offering once to that place. By inserting string inside the heads of buffaloes and cows, cocks and pigs they hand that in front of the post in front of the house which was meant for the spirit. As to such which were false concepts of theirs by doing such they would suffer in the next life for a long time. With this intention such actions were forbidden to carry on. Because of the finishing of the town when he climbed over the throne he awarded to his relatives, ministers, generals, friends, together with regalia, positions, villages, accordingly In the year 917 (1555) his younger brother the governor of Mottama Minyesithu passed away. As to the sons and daughters of Minyesithu a son who recived the title Minyenandameik and the younger sister of Minyenanda the queen of the younger brother of Rakaing named Thiridammadoka. When the elder sister passed away the younger brother of the king of Rakaing married to the younger sister again. That’s why altogether one son and two daughters. All three of them.

UKII:255 Marriage ceremony of his younger brother Thadominsaw and his elder sister

His majesty the king also as those kings who belonged to Tkyattaki tribe having intermarried , marriage between brothers and sisters, to safeguard that they increase in quantity, with the daughter born of AtulathiriMahayazadaewi the chief queen given in marriage to his younger brother king of Ava Thadominsaw.

As regards to the marriage ceremony:
First inside the compound of the palace they built three buildings with high projected roofs and they roofed the buildings with white roof. The main and central tall post from inside went around and around with spotty velvet. As to posts from the middle row they around around them with Zapayin a type of fine cloth As to those posts from outside they bound around with Besein a fine green cloth. Inside there was a white ceiling. From the middle of the ceiling together with nice lace they dangled three strings of beads over one another there they dangled golden banyan leaves underneath that.

Loaded with a certain bed made of gold (check!) On the Bandaing they loaded with velvet mattress of the prince upon mattress of princess the length of it was 5 taung and 2 mite equal to about 8 feet the breadth of it having about 3.5 feet. Underneath those mattresses they kept there one viss of silver. Above the mattress having two pillows one was a headboard and another long pillow used for embracing while sleeping. As to the bed, they had to partition with sun blind cloth (tin-tein = one kind of coverlet or large loose covering of cotton or silk woven in a separate piece) and curtain cloth (Kanlanka tintein). Round about the buildings they had to grow with banana and sugar cane. They had to hang also bunches of bananas and clusters of coconuts. Underneath the building they raised the fan made of cow’s tail (nwathanwe ? check) As to things loaded on the buildings were … In the straight eastern side they kept Hsantinmimehpyu (person or lady called mimehpyu who had to carry rice had to stay there) In the southeastern corner they kept elephant striking iron rod, bow, arrows, and sword. In the straight southern side they kept he Mahabene statue flat rock a sharp rock. In the southwestern corner they set a pair of elephant tusks. In the western side virgins are staying by holding silver and gold. In the northwestern side set a table with various eatable things for meals. In the northern side they kept the species shell fish used for pouring water in celebrating ceremonies…keeping it by filling up with water. In the northeastern side 7 water pots were kept by filling with water. In the middle together with Buddha statue, kept Buddhistic scripts.

UKII:256 Procedure for fetching water to use in the marriage and the manner of marrying

After arranging things in that way arranging for fetching water was 7 brahmins had to follow with palanquin without arch. From behind that 7 daughters having the age of 12 (12 years old) daughters of ministers who still had both parents by combing their hair and binding it on top in a bundle form thus fixed with golden combs and on their necks with necklaces, bracelets, flat bracelets thus by ornamenting with these things they were put on with earrings made of rubies. Thus by embracing golden pots with a long neck and wide mouth being carried on a palanquin with no arch together with the regalia acquired by their respective fathers thus being encircled by bachelors or youngmen they had to go to the holy lake called Kanmatait according to very number (?). From the palace right up to the lake as to the two lanes by fencing up with Yazamat (fence contructed) with rhombic interstices and erected by the side of a road passed by great personages) they had to grow sugar cane and banana plants. They had to hang coconut clusters and betel nut clusters with long piece of cloth ?? yei ou sin kyat hut nei htei ya thi …guessing – they had to insert a pot ornamented with a certain metal, then only from the frontier place four sa myaung (the follower of an ambassador or envoy) from behind them 1000 horsemen, from behind them 100 persons belonging to the class of ministers and generals, from behind them group of entertainment) , dancers, etc. From behind them horse groups thwe thaut 100o persons with good basoes and white earrings, then 40 rich men, then 14 brahmins for making offerings, person who had to hold prayer book and person who had to read the prayer. Then 108 young men, by carrying 108 pots they had to follow from behind.

Then only the king’s younger brothers and princes, ministers, and generals all by celebrating their regalia they had to follow by riding on a horse. When they arrived to the lake there was already a man with the appearance of a nat watching over the lake by holding a two-edged sword asked questions to those who came for fetching water “Who are these, coming to fetch water without asking for permission?” when he asked like that those Brahmins replied “We are coming to fetch holy water for washing the hair of Mahadamayit’s daughter who is going to marry. After saying that they gave gold and silver. Then only the person (in the appearance of nats) allowed them to fetch holy water for washing the hair of the honourable king’s daughter.

After allowing in that way by offering up with parched rice and Tansaung (a movable pyramidical chandelier, presented and lighted at pagoda) those seven young maids by descending into the lake they fetched water. When they got the water, they had to go back accordingly. When they were back at the front of the building, i.e. at the outer building attached to the main building by fencing up with five golden strings on after another , 啊“daung-kyan”a small enclosure bearing some resemblance to a peacock’s cage) in the first space fed food to Balit Nat and planets (nats of those planets). Then only in those five spaces they kept with keepers watching over by carrying sword and spear. Upon the ceiling on the edge of the roof from the water dropping they wrote an inscription in the form of a certain diagram called In (a sort of protective charm from evil or a sort of amulet) By ornamenting with nine types of precious stones they hung up a suspended branch of golden flowers. The sea shell having the shape of a celestial image (might be shel fixed on certain celestial image) by filling water inside of it with golden jar having long neck and large mouth, they had to pour water from the ceiling through the shell. The princess had to stay from underneath of it. Through the golden cup ornamented with nine species of precious stones, filling with Ta-to-yei liquor for washing hair, had to pour on the princess who was going to marry. Then only Brahmins had to pour on them. (perhaps purification rites before proceeding to a major ceremony) At that moment they had to strike the drum. Then they had to play the ladies harp. Lady’s = hngyin: different type of harp. By taking things from a Batoeta tree (padaetha, an artificial tree laden with religious offerings) they offered them up. Donated them. Looking after them, etc. As in the olden ways, then only being supported by mistresses or ladies from palace being in their full regalia (wives of those bearing high positions) they had to cross over to another building (Pyathat). There also they had to pay homage and make offerings. By taking a shower with water fetched by the daughters of ministers she had to change her wet clothes to dry ones. The person who was born on that day had to hand over the clothing. While exchanging clothes they had to strike the drums again. There also they had to make offerings and religious donations. In that building the person who was born on that particular day had to hand over. Clothing fully ornamented with jewels and precious stones. There also by making offerings as she used to before. She had to cross over to the building meant for the marriage ceremony. After the recitations of Brahmins ascended over the porch. On above it the prince and princess had to be there. Then only from plucking from the Padaetha tree they had to offer again (Padeitha = artificial tree laden with religious offerings).

UKII:257 marriage ceremony

The procedure of the marriage ceremony was on the salver set with precious stones – golden rice cooked with seven species of yellowish staff. 1 As to silver rice

(white rice) they were cooked with 7 white types such as milk and cheese. On the top of rice loaded with golden egg thit-ta-pyet = wood paddle meant for stirring rice pot while cooking and meant to be used as a spoon to take out cooked rice for eating -> here it might mean for breaking the egg (dyed in a golden color) (shwei-mon = particles of gold, ngwei-mon = particles of silver) -> meant certain food prepared in the form of particles of gold and silver. After laying all of these on a new table the person who was born on that day had to feed them seven mouthfuls each. When he was about to feed to resemble the raining of gold, silver and basoe, they had to throw those things in the sky. When they were making offerings like that they had to strike the drum. From down they also had to laid (?) with salver set with rubies and from above with cup or chalice decorated with rubies by fetching the water fetched by seven daughters of ministers, thiritzeyanawratha’s wife queen of Talot (?) town, queen of Motama had to pour the water. Then only bound with marriage string. After binding they strike the drum. When the striking of the drum was over the Brahman behaving like the chief Brahman stating “At the beginning of the world we are Brahma. Of marrying to the daughter of a sovereign king for the whole 100 years by carrying for the benefits of people as there are peace, now the prince and princess, the two of you together, by having 100 years life span, in the religion by working for the benefits of people, let there be peace and tranquility.” By saying that with the shell having the twist line on it from the right side (turning line is heading to the right side) had to bless the marriage (Batheit myaut = a blessing pronounced by brahmans accompanied with the pouring of water through a shell) Then they had to strike the drum. As to the shell through which poured in the marriage ceremony, by loading in a flower basket filled with precious stones the wife of Thirizeyanawratha who had sons and daughters had to hand over to the prince and princess. At that time had to encircle it with drums of elephants, drums of horses, and drums of soldiers (?) had to celebrate feast with various groups of musical entertaining for seven days.

Then only to his daughter and younger brother, granted with servants as the holder of the betel box and drinking water jar, 10 sons of ministers, 20 fighting elephants, and 200 horses. As to his daughter granted with golden palanquin, 4 golden boats, betel box having 8 spheres decorated with three lines of rubies, teapot inserted with runies, cover of water jar, golden spittoon, 10 daughters of ministers. When they arrived back to Ava, she was ordered to stay in four sided roof having three steps and roofed with white color.

In the year 918 (1556) when sawbwa Paw who was administering over Onpaung passed away, his younger brother Sa-saing-lon ruled over the throne as sawbwa in place of his older brother (earlier to that) sawbwa gon-maing-gyi’s son ruler of sitku when Ngasitku was destroyed due to the suppressing of his majesty the king, he fled to Onpaung. Onpaung sawbwa also by giving Mone to ruler of Ngasitku he had to be sawbwa over it. (later) when Sain-lon was ascending over the one of Onpaung, Mone sawbwa by retorting that should he rule over the throne! Together with lots of elephants, horses, and troops by marching to Onpaung attacked it. Then the Onpaung sawbwa Sasainglon with humble words, sending lots of arms and gifts, to his majesty the king to send helping troops to him. Later due to the attacking of Mone sawbwa Onpaung was destroyed . Sa sainglone also was killed.

(UKII:257 second para)

In the year 918 (1556) sawbwa-baw who had been elevated to ministerial level (ruling) over Onpaung died after which his younger brother Sa-hsain-lon was raised to sawbwa in his brother’s place. (Hkoun = hkun = lord in Tai languages, main = mong = muang = settlement, hkoun-maing-gyi = great lord of settlements) Bawashinmintayagyi attacked sitku ruler by the sitku myosa (who had fled there from Ava when it was taken by Bayinnaung), this myosa was the son of sawbwabaw or sawbwa konmainggyi the great lord of Mong (Sitku = Ngasinku), Sitku was destroyed and the myosa of siku fled to Onpaung. The Onpaung ruler sawbwa baw gave the former Sinku ruler Mone and made him sawbwa. Sawbwa baw died and and his brother Sahsainlon became sawbwa (perhaps because Sa-hsain-lon the brother was in Onpaung while Sinku-sa , Mone-sa , the son was away ruling over another domain. Sawbwa baw’s son the Mone-sa thought to himself “Sa-hsain” has been made king. Is it appropriate that he has been made king?” and with elephants and horses gathered together in concentrated force marched to Onpaung and attacked the city. The Onpaung sawbwa Sa-hsain-lon sent gifts with many arms to Bawa-shin-min-ta-ya-gyi, addressing him with great reverence asking for his help as an ally. Afterwards, the sawbwa baw’s son the Mone sawbwa attacked and Onpaung was destroyed. Sa-hsain-lon died.

UKII:258 Plans to seize the whole Shan states

When his majesty the king heard about all these things he called his royal son the crown prince Maha Upayaza and all his ministers saying “Now we had conquered the three sites of the Talaings (Mon) the kingdom of Ketumadi (Toungoo), the kingdom of Tayeikittaya (Prome) , the kingdom of Ava, the whole Burmese nation, and the whole Talaing nation. Now we are going to conquer the nine states of the Shan sawbwas, the kingdom of Yuan, the kingdom of Gon, the kingdom of Lu, the kingdom of Kathe. What is your opinion about these plans? When explained and enthusiastically asked by the king, Banyadala replied that the case forwarded by sawbwa of Onpaung being so serious that just appointing the king’s younger brother, sons, generals, and ministers to be leaders of the war would not be good because of the nine states of the Shan sawbwas had many elephants and horses. They had a lot of ammunitions and soldier. It was situated very close to the kingdom of Ava. In the past the Shan king used to rule the Ava kingdom. Because of this only when his majesty the king himself marched and attacked these people, then only his younger brothers, sons , generals, and ministers would try their best by laying down their lives to conquer the battle, After all, Onpaung was not the only one to be conquered, soon after conquering Onpaung the rest would follow suit. Viz Momeit, Bamaw, Mogaung, Mohnyin, Kalei. There would be no more enmity between these states and Hanthawaddy until his majesty the kings sons and grandsons, great grandsons, etc. they would respect and pay homage throughout their descendants .

When Banyalaw heard about the plans proposed by Banyadala to his majesty the king, he fully supported his speech. He gave suggestions that his majesty the king march by water, his younger brothers King Thadodamayaza and king Minkaung his son Maha Upayaza, his son-in-law Thadominsaw his subordinates like generals and ministers would lead the troops to march on lands in either two or three paths. If they would march in such a way, not only the sawbwas of the Shan states, but also the Chinese king U Ti Bwa [emperor] would not be able to resist against them. His son Maha Upayaza together with ministers and generals would whole-heartedly try their best to work for the king. Thus Banyalaw addressed his majesty the king.

UKII:259 Marching towards Onpaung

When his majesty the king had heard about all their speeches, he was very pleased that he allowed them to make use of elephanteers and cavalry. These were the armies which marched together with his majesty the king viz: Let Neh Yeh Tain horse army, Yazataman horse army, Tuyinyaza horse army, Nandateinzu horse army, Letyayawda horse army. Behind those there were elephant armies, viz: Nandakyawhtin one army, Banyayan one army, Nandathuriya one army, Banyatanlait one army, Bayakamanit one army, Banyadala one army, Bayakyawthu one army, Tameinzawkarat one army, Nandatinkyan one army, his younger brother the king of Toungoo one army, his son the Mahaupayaza [crown prince] one army, there were altogether 16 armies including those five horse armies. These armies were composed of 300 fighting elephants, 6,000 horses, and 120,000 soldiers. They marched from Hanthawaddy to Ketumadi, then from Ketumadi to Kintayangan by passing besides Laingthet.

Along another path there was Letyayehtain horse army, Tootyin B Lat horse army, Satu Yingatu horse army, Bayakyawtu horse army, tootyin Deithit horse army. Behind these there were elephant armies, vix: Bayakyawhtin one army, Tameinyehtinyan one army, Min-maha one army, Banyakyawthaw one army, Thirizeyakyawhtin one army, Tameintankyeh one army, Tayesitu one army, Tamein Epare one army, Situ-kyaw-htin one army, Banyalaw one army, his son-in-law Thadaw-min-saw the king of Ava one army, there were altogether 16 armies including five horse armies. These armies were made of three hundred fighting elephants, 6,000 horses, and 120,000 infantry. When his majesty the king together with his troops arrived to Ava by boat, they marched to Onpaung from Ava via the Sitkaung path.

His majesty the king when he marched by water these were the armies which accompanied him. viz: Let We Yawda one army, Emongtaya one army, Yazatu one army, Tamein Zeitpon one army, Yazatinkyan one army, Tamein Ngaw-kwin one army,Tihapateit one army, Tamein La goon Ein one army, Nanda Kyawtu one army, Tamein E-bya-pait one army, Tin-kaya one army, Tamein Ba-put one army, Nanda Yawda one army, Tamein Bya Bait one army, Letya Nandatu one army. From behind these armies, the king himself together with his queen and daughter the queen of Ava, riding on a royal boat made in the shape of a Hintha duck (species of wild duck). This royal boat was pulled by eight other Lawka (a boat of state with a high ornamental stern) on the other 28 Lawka they carried the king’s personal property. Thus marching from the front part of the royal boat itself. At the four dimensions of the royal boat, there were boats made in the shape of elephants, Samayi (a kind of fabulous/mythical beast celebrated for its tail), buffalo, crocodiles, saw fish, and Makan, a certain sea animal. On these boats and other fighting boats, they kept golden shields, gold embossed, golden round, and golden spears, all these were spread open in proper order. They also carried cannon, mortar, or swivel guns on board and asked to play the trumpet, drum, gong, Path-tha (a small cylindrical drum fixed on a circular frame), flute, hne (oboe, a wind instrument with holes on the side and a spreading mouth), very loudly until they could hear their vibrations all over the river. By doing such, they had to follow after the royal boat, i.e. from its four dimensions. The number of boats was 300.

Those who had to march from behind were viz: Baya Tin Kyan one army, Tamein Tokarat one army, Bayakyawhtin one army, Thiridhammadawka one army, Letweinandameik one army, his younger brother Thadodhammayaza one army, The king of Prome was appointed to be the chief of these armies. Together with the army as a whole including twenty two navy armies there were altogether 1,500 fighting boats in various shapes like elephant and horses, the size too, some were very big like Katu-loon-kyin ( a kind of large boat built for coastal trade). There were 300 Lawka made of iron, 1,000 large boats to carry provisions, and 120,000 soldiers. Myanmar ministers, Talaing ministers, Shan ministers together with their wives had to follow by boat only. Dancers, musical instrument players like harp round drums (bat-si) had to accompany with the marching.

For Motama and its thirty-two towns left over under the care of the governors of Motama and Moulmein by strengthening their forces with elephants and horses. As regards to the royal city Hanthawaddy, it was entrusted under the care of Anawratha Thet-shei Kyaw-htin, Banyaset, and Banyayan. For the thirty-two towns of western Bassein asked the governor of Keipaung, Deipatwei, and Linpateit to look after properly by strengthening their forces with elephants and horses. As mentioned above in all the armies there was the sound of trumpets, drums, cymbals, sounds from the shooting of cannon and guns. Thus vibrations could be heard everywhere all over the river. Thus marched in a splendid and inferior celestial being’s honorary degree on Monday 8th waxing of the moon of Natdaw (the 9th month in the Burmese calendar, i.e. in 918 (1556 A.D.) from the capital Hanthawaddy. Whenever they encamped there would be public entertainment.

When they reached to Dagon, he went to the pagoda named Dagon Sandawshin (the pagoda where they kept the relics, i.e. hair of the lord Buddha) together with his queen, daughter, and concubines to offer various offerings. Soon they marched from Dagon to Tayekeitaya. When they arrived there, he went to Myatitin Shwedandaw pagoda by riding on a large state palanquin together with his queen, son, daughter, and concubines just to have a look and pray. As he was entering into his 45th anniversary (birthday) he made an offering to 45 monks. To repair all those pagodas that had fallen into disrepair, pagodas, temples, meditation caves, he appointed people to look after the town properly thus offered money 50 in amount.

Thus they went up from Tayekeitaya to Pagan. When they reached there, he went to Shwezigon pagoda by riding on a palanquin together with his queen just to have a look and pray. Here again he offered to 45 monks as he was entering into his 45th anniversary. They also had public entertainment there.

(The same as above again, but this time in greater detail)

UKII:259 Marching towards Onpaung: When his majesty the king heard all these speeches, he was very pleased and allowed them to make use of his elephanteers and cavalry. 16 armies including 5 horse armies (how many elephants?) marched with the king with 300 elephants, 6,000 horses, and 120,000 soldiers. They marched from Hanthawaddy to Ketumadi (Toungoo) to Kintayangan by way of passing Laing-thet.

Marching along another path were 16 armies including 5 horse armies with 300 elephants, 6,000 horses, and 120,000 infantry. When his majesty the king together with his troops arrived to Ava by boat, they marched to Onpaung from Ava via Sinkhaung. When the king proceeded by water he was accompanied fifteen armies. The king traveled behind these armies with his queen and daughter, the queen of Ava, riding in a royal boat in the shape of a Hintha duck. This boat was about 34 yards long and 11 stories high with a graduated roof (?). This boat was pulled by another eight Lawkas (a Lawka is a boat of state with a high ornamented stern). Another 28 Lawka carrying the king’s property proceeded in front of the king’s boat. At the front, sides, and back of the king’s boat were boats made in the shape of elephants, Samayi (a mythical beast with a special tail), buffalo, crocodiles, saw-fish, and Makan, a sea animal. One these boats and other fighting boats they kept three types of golden shields along with golden spears. All these were spread out in proper order. They also carried cannon, mortar, and swivel guns on board. Boats following the royal boat played trumpets, drums, gongs, and flutes so loudly that their vibrations could be heard over the river.

Five armies proceeded behind the king. The king’s younger brother Thadodammayaza, king of Prome, was appointed to be leader of these armies. The armies included 22 naval tats with 1,500 boats in various shapes such as that of an elephant or a horse. Some were very big like a Katuloon, a large boat built for the coasting trade. There were 300 Lawka made of rion, 1000 big boats to carry provisions, and 120,000 soldiers. Myanmar ministers, Talaing ministers, and Shan ministers together with their wives had to follow by boat. Dancers and musicians playing harps and drums accompanied the procession.

Motama and its 32 towns were left under the care of the governors of Motama and Moulmein. Their forces were strengthened with elephants and horses. The royal city Hanthawaddy was entrusted to the care of Anwyatathetsheikyawhtin, Banyaset and Banyayan. For the 32 towns of western Bassein, the governors of Kaepaung, Deipatwei, and Linpateit were requested to look after them. Their armies were strengthened with elephants and horses. As mentioned above, in all the armies there were sounds of trumpets, drums, cymbals, and sounds from the shooting of guns and cannons. These vibrations could be heard everywhere, all over the river. They marched on (918, Natdaw, wax, 8) (1556) from the capital Hanthawaddy. Whereever they encamped there was entertainment.

When they reached Dagon he went to the pagoda named Dagon Sandoshin together with his queen, daughter, and concubines and made various offerings. Soon after they marched from Dagon to Tayeikitaya (Prome) when they arrived there the king went to Myatitin Shwesandaw pagoda by riding a large state palanquin together with his queen, son, daughter, and concubines just to have a look and pray. As he was entering into his 45th anniversary he made an offering to 45 monks. He offered money in 50 in amount to repair pagodas, temples, and meditation caves in disrepair and appointed people to look after them. Thus they went up from Tayekitaya to Pagan. When they reached there, he went to Shweizigon pagoda by riding on palanquins together with his queen to view the pagoda and pray. Here he again offered to 45 monks as he was entering his 45th anniversary. They also had public entertainment there.

UKII:260 Governors of Mohnyin his brother-in-laws enter into his protection.

After marching from Pagan when they reached to Tayetmyo port (literally: Chinese town port) Mohnyin-sa’s brother-in-law who governed Mohnyin Depeyin and Pakangyi and another governor who governed both Siboktaya and Badon came to his majesty the king and addressed the king. They promised that they would capture his brother-in-law (the older one) who governed both Mohnyin and Wuntho on behalf of the king and would hand him over to the king. His majesty the king gave the order to capture him until they could catch and gave them many rewards. Thus he marched upwards again. When they arrived at Ava mountain, the place named mountain monster’s site, he built Tabin palace (enjoyable Palace) and stayed there with his queen, son, daughter, and concubines. High ranking office bearers together with their respective wives had to stay around the palace by building tents of individual.

Meanwhile, governor of Tonse came to be the king’s subordinate by offering two elephants and his own daughter. The governor of Maing-lon called sawbwa Kon-maing the grandson of Onpaung came into the king’s sovereignty by handing over a lot of gifts like ammunition and his own daughter. Asked his son to be the servant of the king always. The king ordered to these two to take an oath, thus to be loyal towards the king. Thus they had to work for the king and awarded with a lot of gifts. While he was in Ava, he fixed golden plates upon the Sagaing Put-nya-shin pagoda from the top of the pagoda to the floor. He also asked and supported persons to be monks as his age was entering into the 45th anniversary.

While his son the Maha-Upayaza and his younger brother king Minkhaung together with 16 armies marching from the frontier on the path of Kintayangan, the governor of Tonse was ordered to march at the front place. The other 16 armies led by his son-in-law Thadawminsaw, the king of Ava, had to march from Thon-hse to Momeit by passing besides Mohnyin. The governor of Maing-lon was ordered to march from the front place. The armies involved here were viz: Letyayehtaing horse army, and Tootyin Bala horse army, The elephant armies weer Bayakyawhtin, Tameinyetinyan, Thirizeyakyawhtin, and Banyakyanhtaw.

His majesty the king himself had to ride on his own elephant, accompanied by 150 fighting elephants and 1,000 horses which were led by Bayanantu and Dewakama. Thus they marched from the western bank of the Irrawaddy until they reached Sampenago (Bhamo). From there they traveled by boat (Yadana golden boat) accompanied by his ministers and generals. While marching there were sounds of trumpets, drums, gongs, etc. that the vibrations could be heard all over the water. In that way he marched in a splendid and inferior celestial beings’ honorary degree. Here there point of departure was Yadanapura. At that time there were thirty concubines.

From Yadanapura, they encamped in Khotaung. From Khotaung the y encamped again at On-tasi. Thus these were the places they encamped: Ngasikaing, Teitseit, Ngasiku, Kaput, and Tihutaw.

UKII:261 The sawbwa of Momeit attacked in advance

At the Thihataw pagoda made an offering of golden Tanzaung, silver Tanzaung, (Tanzaung = a four cornered edifice with a graduated roof built as an appendage to a pagoda) golden flower and silver flower. From Tihataw encamped at at Man-ta-Chaung. From there they encamped right at the middle of Sanpenago. They had to build a temporary bridge so that elephants and horses could cross over it. When they reached the other side of the river they formed their armies back again as they formed their navy. Thus they marched from Sampenago to Momeit. At the last camp before they arrived at Momeit, the sawbwa of Momeik came out to attack them with 50 elephants, 2000 horses, 40,000 soldiers including his sons, younger brothers, and relatives. His majesty the king when his frontier horsemen met with these troops they fought against them but they could not conquer. That’s why they had to retreat. The Shans also made their pursuit until they could reach them. Meanwhile Emontaya by riding on the elephant named Swelaman attacked back fiercely. Yazatinkyan joined in the attack riding on his elephant Yadanatanzaung. Nandayawda made an attack by riding on their respective elephants viz: Tameinlagunein riding on Yelulin, Tameinbyabaik riding on Zeyanubat, Tameinngawkwin riding on Tayonphan. When these six generals marched with their elephants straight (into battle), the rest of the majors and officers did the same thing, i.e. attacking by elephants, the Shans could not stand against them. That’s why about five or six elephants of Shan people were killed. Meanwhile, since they made a severe attack with elephants and horses, the Shans could not stand that they were finally destroyed. They captured six elephants, about 70 horses and about 800 soldiers. Many died in this battle.

While the sawbwa of Momeik was preparing to resist from the town, he realized that Banyalaw, Banyakyantaw, edtc. altogether six armies were arriving from Mohnyin to Momeit. Since he could not resist from the town anymore he ran to Onpaung to unite with them. When the sawbwa ran away the captured many elephants, horses, and soldiers. His majesty the king remained in Momeit.

His younger brother Thadodammayaza one army, Banyalaw one army, Sithukyawhtin one army, Lagunein one army, Nandayawdaw one army, Tameinyetinyan one army. Two horse armies altogether making nine armies which were composed of 100 fighting elephants, 200 horses, and 80,000 soldiers. With these armies they made a pursuit after the sawbwa of Moemeit.

The crown prince Mahaupayaza, younger brother king Minkhaung, son-in-law Thadosaw king of Ava, they were reunited again at the last two camps before arriving at Onpaung. In the past they marched separately. Meanwhile, the Mahaupayaza told them not to march just in one group for that would not be nice, rather to march in three ways (along three paths) so that it would be easier for them to suppress Onpaung. King Minkhaung supporting his proposal said that if they marched along three paths (directions) it would be easier to surround them. That’s why the Mahaupayaza marched from the middle direction together with eight armies here including three horse armies.

UKII:262 The success of the Onpaung sawbwa’s welcome attack

King Minkhaung marched from the right direction together with eight armies here included two horse armies. Thadominsaw together with nine armies here included two horse armies marched from the left direction (side). Before arriving to Onpaung, i.e. 15 miles or about three taing from Onpaung, the sawbwa made a welcome attack, with 150 fighting elephants, 3000 horses, 70,000 soldiers, including also his sons and sons-in-law. The three horse armies who were asked by the Mahaupayaza to march from the front when they met with their enemy Letweyetaing, Yazataman, Tootyinyaza, together with 3000 cavalry bravely fought against the Shans. The Shans resisted with 3000 cavalry, but they could not stand. Then the Shans were reunited with their elephant troops again. Yazataman and companions made a pursuit after them again. When the Onpaung sawbwa and his sons and son-in-laws saw the elephant corp, by taking about 10 elephants they fought against Let-we-ye-taing’s cavalry. Let-ye-we-taing also resisted with about 3000 horses for quite along time. Meanwhile Upayaza riding the elephant named Zeyadita was arriving to the fighting ground. Nandatinkyan was riding on the elephant called Yadanapyaung, Tameinzawkarat was riding on the elephant called Nga-yet-new, Bayakyawtu was riding on the elephant named Zeyapalein, Banyadala was riding on the elephant named Nat-ta-pyaung-kya, When all these five elephant troops fought severely, the Shan elephants since they were younger ones, were frightened. When Upayaza joined the battle, together with the elephants ridden by the son of Onpaung, three elephants fell down. The son of the Onapaung sawbwa departed from the battle very quickly by riding on a horse. The elephant ridden by the younger brother of Onpaung was attacked by the elephant Nattapyaungkya ridden by Banyadala. When the elephant’s throat rode by younger brother of Onpaung sawbwa was pierced by the tusks, it fell down on the spot there. Onpaung sawbwa’s younger was escaped because he ran away by riding on a horse. then only they had to pursue with elephants, horses, and soldiers. When king Minkaung and troops arrived there and started to pursue them the Shan army was destroyed. King of Ava Thadominsawn and troops suppressed the Onpaung town itself very bravely by marching from the left path. When Onpaung sawbwa could not resist, his army was destroyed and he was caught together with his whole town.

While his majesty the king was staying in Momeit, the so-called Momeit united army composed of governor of Mo-la, governor of Mo-wan, governor of Saga-taung came to submit themselves by bringing big elephants, big horses, their daughters and many other things as gifts. These people had to take an oath that they be loyal to the king. Thus they were given a lot of gifts and they had to work for the king.

UKII:263 How they caught the run away Momeit sawbwa

The Momeit sawbwa ran away by elephant and horse taking with him all his sons and wives so that he was united with the Onpaung sawbwa. When he arrived at the place called Pan-nya he heard about the destruction of Onpaung. That’s why he was remaining there. Meanwhile, the kings younger brother Thadodammayaza, king of Prome, and troops saw him and attacked him. When the Momeit sawbwa dare not resist, he surrendered to Thadodammayaza. Thus he was captured. together with all his elephants, horses, and soldiers. By bringing all these they went back to Momeit. His majesty the king soon after rearranging and reappointing Momeit to be in proper order, he handed over this town to be under the care of the Onpaung sawbwa’s grandson, the governor of Maing-lon. He was given with a seal to be sawbwa of Momeit because he came to submit himself. He was given back also all his sons, wives, father-in-law, and mother-in-law from Hanthawaddy. they had all been captured when the king fought against Sinku. They had to pay tax every year in the form of rubies, gold, silver, sheep, musk deer, horse…?...mine (?)

Onpaung was given to the governor of Tonse (Thonse) to be a sawbwa there. He was given with the seal of the king’s right hand and all the equipage required by a sawbwa. He called back his son Maha Upayaza, his younger brother king Minkhaung, and son-in-law Thadominsaw from Onapaung to Momeit. That’s why they had to go back to Momeit.

UKII:264 How the king put an end to the false concepts of the Shan people.

In Onpaung and Momeit, etc. i.e. almost the whole Shan states there were false concepts like killing the elephant and horse ridden by the sawbwa and the slaves loved and highly valued by him. All these would be killed and buried together with the dead sawbwa. When he knew about all these bad concepts carried out by the people there, he stopped them from doing this. Since there were no learning centers for Buddhism he built one pagoda in Onpaung and another one in Momeit. Then he offered land, materials, and supplies. In Momeit he built one temple that was surrounded by ten small buildings meant for teaching Buddhism there. Here they asked monks and virtuous persons who were well-versed in Pali Athakata (commentary on on the original Pali text composed by Rahandas) and Nika supplementary to the inspired commentary of the Rohandas to stay there. Starting from the sawbwa together with all generals, ministers, and all the leaders had to undergo all the instructions about the five duties binding on all creatures, according to the five great commands and the eight duties that are to be performed by all people on days of worship. They underwent three to four months of training. They kept the Buddhist scriptures half in Onpaung and half in Momeit. The leaders of the soldiers had to warn the people both from the towns and villages to undergo instruction about religion from three to four months. As regards to the usage of measures such as one “tin” (basket), “kwe” half a basket, “hseit” quarter of a basket and measures such as “tsaroot” a measure of capacity equal to two “Pyees”, and weights such as “mu”, “pe”, “kyat”, “ta-se”, “viss”, etc. all these had to made to conform to the standards of the capital.

UKII:265 The way they marched to Mogaung and Mohnyin

Thus by arranging everything for the benefit of the present and next life, he summoned his son, youngerer brother, son-in-law, generals, and ministers and asked them which would better, i.e. either marching to Mogaung-Mohnyin or Mone Nyaung Shwe. At that time his son the Maha Upayaza and the rest addressed the king saying to leave aside Mone and Nyaungshwe thus to march to Mogaung and Mohnyin first for they caused a lot of trouble and destruction upon the whole northern part of Burma like massaging the body. They used to raise the son of Sawlon named Thohanbwa on the throne of Ava once already. Myanma was held in reverence by all. During the reigns of Toe chi Bwa and To ngan bwa they used to fight with the Chinese king U Ti Bwa [emperor] even for twelve years. That’s why they should capture Mohnyin-Mogaung by marching towards them. Once they could get Mogaung and Mohnyin, Mone and Nyaungshwe as well as all the rest located in the southern Shan states would not be able to escape from the king’s hands.

When Banyadala heard about the addressing of the king’s son the Maha Upayaza he supported his proposals in front of the king. Then he continued to say that the rainy season was about to come. Only when they marched to these towns and suppressed all would be nice. If the rains fell streams and drains would be filled with water that it would not be nice for the marching of elephants and horses. If that happened there would be a lot of killing.

When Banyalaw heard what Banyadala was speaking about, he said that what the Mahaupayaza and Banyadala were speaking about were merely war affairs. Mogaung and Mohnyin had a lot of good elephants and horses. they also had many good soldiers. The fact was that they already knew about the capability of Shans and Shans in turn knew about our capability already. he presumed that Shan people would be afraid to fight against them when they marched. Thus they would resist from their towns by reinforcing their citiesx. If they would resist in that way, the battle would be prolonged for nothing.

His majesty the king was pleased by the addressing of his son and the rest that he arranged and appointed for marching to Mogaung and Mohnyin. Let-we-ye-taing horse army, Yazataman horse army, and behind there there were Nandakyawhtin one army, Banyayan one army, Nandatu one army Bayakamani one army, his royal son the MahaUpayaza one army, altogether seven armies were included to horse armies had to march from the right direction.

(The following paragraphs are just list of troops).

UKII:266 How the sawbwas of Mogaung, Mohnyin were destroyed.

Soon after appointing like that he sent Onpaung sawbwa and Momeit sawbwa together with all their sons and wives to Hanthawaddy. In the town called Samenago all the boats belonging to the navy had to go up to the northern side called Tagara which was in fact a small island. By arranging such in the year 918 (1556) on the 11th waxing day of the month called Tabaung they marched to Mogaung and Mohnyin from Momeit. When they arrived to the place called Tikyit they built a pontoon bridge to be crossed over by elephants, horses, buffaloes, bulls, cows, soldiers, and their leaders. When they arrived at the other side of the river, they had to march according to their set procedure.

Mogaung sawbwa and Mohnyin sawbwa when they heard about the marching of his majesty the king together with his great troops almost filling up the whole of space, they were frightened to resist from the town of Mohnyin that they shifted to the northern part of the town in the forest called Nwepaitput. Here they built strong camps to resist against the troops from Hanthawaddy. When his son the Mahaupayaza, his younger brother Thadodammayaza king of Prome, and his son-in-law Thadominsaw heard about the camps built by the Mogaung – Mohnyin sawbwas in the forest called Nwepatput without having the slightest fright for them , they marched very quickly so that they would arrived there ahead of the rest of them. Thus the king of Ava Thadominsaw arrived there first that he fought very bravely without having hany hindrance. That’s why the sawbwas were destroyed for they could not resist anymore. Then only the Mahaupayaza, Thadodammayaza, and the rest arrived. Then they had to capture captives. They captured a lot of elephants, horses, and soldiers. His majesty the king himself, going to the northern part and marched by crossing over the mountain. They encamped near the town called Maing-naut and stayed there.

When the king heard that the sawbwa’s troops were destroyed by the fighting of his younger brother and the rest, he sent his soldiers to join the battle. They captured a lot of elephants and people. His younger brother, son , and the rest also handed over to him all that they had captured, viz. elephants, horses, and people. Meanwhile his son the Mahaupayaza addressing to the king saying: the Mogaung sawbwa who governed forty-five districts and the Mohnyin sawbwa who had to lord over 35 districts since they used to fight with the Chinese king U Ti Bwa [emperor] for even twelve years that they thought they would have to fight face to face, elephant to elephant, horse to horse, by laying down their lives, but they had no chance to fight like that. Instead they ran into the forest where tthey were sticky clay, bushes, and wilderness, etc. to hide themselves.

Meanwhile, the ministers of Mogaung sawbwa spoke to him in this way “Now when the king of Hanthawaddy was marching towards them, he brought along with him a lot of elephants, horses, and soldiers. They were also filled with great ammunitions. His majesty the king also had many people who would lay down their lives for their king viz: his younger brother, his son, son-in-law, generals, and ministers. Even if they would maek an attack, they would not be able to resist.

When they ran away because they could not resist, they would not be able to escape. Because of that, as there was a saying “while one is suffering, cannot leave the other, i.e. son of somebody else like that” (?) they would catch the Mohnyin sawbwa together with his wives, sons, and family members to hand over to the king of Hanthawaddy as a gift. then only their lives would be spared and they would gain back their own positions.” When the Mogaung sawbwa heard what his minister spoke about he was pleased by their proposals. That’s why, while Mohnyin sawbwa and his soldiers were staying without noticing anything, he captured them all and handed them over to the king. At that time the ministers of Mogaung were addressing to the king saying that since his majesty the king marched and attacked Momeit, they were telling to the sawbwa of Mohnyin to surrender but he refused to do that. Even if the king was really marching towards them , he was saying that he would attack the king. Because of that we were about to be destroyed. Now we would surrender ourselves thus we would work for you.

His majesty the king, since he was filled with royal virtues, he did not get angry with the sawbwa of Mohnyin. Thus he marched to Mogaung and when he arrived there, he summoned his son, younger brother, son-in-law to come up to Mogaung. When all arrived there, starting from the Mogaung sawbwa himself together with all his generals and ministers they had to take an oath that they would be faithful to the king. Mogaung sawbwa was given back his own town together with the right hand seal of the king. The king took away two sons, one daughter, one nephew,, one niece of the Mogaung sawbwa to be with him always. They had to pay annually tax like gold, silver, amber, sheep, musk deer, satin, Tibet bulls, and horses.

As regards to the town of Mohnyin it was given to the governor of Dipeyin named Zaloun. he was the one who came to surrender before the brother in law of the sawbwa (?). He was also given the full regalia of a sawbwa. His son and daughter had to remain with the king. Golden tax, silver tax, sheep tax, musk deer tax, duck tax, horse tax, saddle cloth tax, had to be given annually when those magistrates came to tell them to do so. As regards to the sawbwa of Mohnyin, by taking an oath that he be faithful to the king he was given the town called Nun-sein-kan-meit. By naming the son of the Mohnyin sawbwa Mo-lon he had to govern Dipeyin. One of his sons and one of his daughters had to remain with the king always.

UKII:267 How they spread their Buddhism in Northern Part of the Shan States

Mogaung, Mohnyin, and the rest, even on the whole Shan states, they recorrected all those wrong concepts, thus substituted with Buddhism. They also asked Gandadurat (Wipanadurat, Wipatana = in Pali, a kind of wisdom which enables the possessor to make extraordinary discoveries) such person to remain there and teach Buddhism. By copying Buddhistic scripts (Pali Athakata) they kept one in Mogaung and another in Mohnyin. As regards to measuring and weighing, they kept what was being used in the capital as a standard one.

Soon after arranging the whole Shan states in proper order he marched from Mogaung to Tikyi in the year 919 (1557) on the second waxing moon of Kason. When he wrrived in Tikyi in the very same month, on the first waning moon, he went back to Ava by riding on a fully decorated boat with gemstones. He arrived to Ava on the 14th waning moon of KasonHe stayed in the palace of Ava Taung, Taung Bilu literarily means (mountain of Ava, monster mountain) for seven days. Meanwhile, he awarded to all those musicians, dancers, players, etc, who had performed excellently in Onpaung, Momeit, Mogaung, and Mohnyin with villages and positions. Then only he went back to Hanthawaddy on the 6th waxing moon of Waso together with all his troops both by water and on land. He arrived back to Hanthawaddy on the 13th waxing moon of Wagaung.

UKII:268 Appointments to March to Mo-naing

The Moenaing sawbwa had taken an oath to be faithful and loyal to the king from the king of Ketumadi. He took an oath by erecting three swords (one made of gold, one silver, and the other iron) in a cup of water that he be faithful and loyal to the king. But now not only abandoning his promise but also attacked and captured Thibaw which was included in Burmese empire. When Thibaw was destroyed , be captured the sawbwa of Thibaw and killed him. He had taken the late sawbwa’s wives wives, sons, good elephants and horses away. He was giving trouble even up to Tonse (Thonse) When the king heard about all this presented by his son-in-law Thadominsaw the king of Ava he called his son the Mahaupayaza and the rest of the generals and ministers saying to them that the Monaing sawbwa had broken his promise and now he had even destroyed Thibaw and Thonse which belonged to them. As deers and rabbits used to cross in front of lions he had been doing the same thing already. Thus the king was raising questions asking whether just appointing his sons, generals, ministers, and the rest of them to march or he himself had to march along to suppress Moenaing. Banyalaw said that it was not necessary for the king to march to Moenaing and Nyaungshwe, rather just by appointing his son, younger brother, generals, ministers and the rest, they in turn would take those towns easily for the king.

When Bayakyawtu heard what Banyalaw was speaking about he addressed in this way saying that Moenaing, Nyaungshwe, Yawksawk, and Naingmoon had a lot of elephants and horses. they also had a lot of ammunition, soldiers and heroes. They were close to the kingdom of Zinme, Kengtung kingdom, and Theinni kingdom. Without having any background they would not be daring such to attack and destroy our outskirt areas, because of that just appointing his son, younger brother and the rest would not be nice. By arranging elephant armies, horse armies, and infantry, only when the king himself marched would it be carried out easily.

When his royal son crown prince Mahaupayaza heard what Banyakyawtu was speaking about, he supported his proposal. Since his majesty the king was pleased by what Bayakyawtu was speaking about he appointed to form troops in various forms such as elephant’s army, horse army, etc.

(names of troops from p 305 last paragraph to p 306 end of the chapter)


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