Tuesday, June 06, 2006

Ava Before Min-gyi-nyo Becomes King of Toungoo (1426-1486):

Summary History from U Kala and Harvey:

Mohnyinthado (Mohnyin Mintaya) (1427-40)

From Harvey:

"Mohnyinthado’s reign was spent trying to maintain his throne. Taungdwingyi, Yamethin, Pinle, and above all Toungoo, under princes of much the same standing as himself went their own way and treated him as best a senior. When he tried to reduce these towns, he found some of them defended by Shans, possibly recent immigrants; and Onbaung (Hsipaw) and Yawnghwe made common cause with them. He was so weak that he had only intermittent control of the Kyaukse canals on which his granaries depended. Onbaung attacked Myedu and the northern frontier in Shwebo district, and even for eight months drove him out of his palace, withdrawing only on payment of a large sum. Binnyaran, the prince of Pegu, retained his exiles and was in league with Toungoo but never actually invaded the Ava state; when he sent envoys to Ava asking for a princess as he price of extraditing a fugitive lord and of ceasing to besiege Prome, Mohnyinthado was so angry that he kept the envoys waiting three months without audience and had to be dissuaded from killing them; but finally he gave the princess" (Harvey, 97-98).

Mohnyinthado became king of Ava in 1427 (UKII:55-56).

Around 788 (1427) Ava sent an expedition south against Pagan. As they neared Pagan, they sent an advanced party of 300 soldiers at night to scout out the town and assess its strength under the leadership of Yazathinkyan. When those troops were spotted, Pagan forces pursued them until they were either destroyed or dispersed in all directions. Pagan troops then encircled the leader Yazathinkyan, but Yazathinkyan managed to slip through their encirclement and escape by trickery. Ava then attacked Pagan with larger forces and took it in seven days to take the town. They took Taraphya, ruler of Pagan, captive together with Min-ngeh-kyaw-tin. A residence was built for Taraphya in Ava near the elephant taming ground and he was forced to live there, not being allowed to return to Pagan (UKII:57).

In a series of events around 788 (1427) the chronicle depicts a test of loyalty given by the king of Ava to two vassal rulers. Gifts were sent by the king of Ava to the ruler of Toungoo Sawlu Tinkaya and the ruler of Taungdwin Tihapateit and they were both requested to report to Ava. The ruler of Taungdwin, recalling his childhood friendship with Mohnyin Mintaya, the king of Ava, traveled to Ava accompanied with his troops. The ruler of Toungoo was initially hesitant about going, but felt uneasy after the Taungdwin ruler left for Ava. He eventually changed his mind and went to Ava. Mohnyin Mintaya, the king of Ava, summoned the Taungdwin ruler to his palace and honored him like a king having him sit upon a special throne and sharing betel nut from his betel nut box with him (UKII58).

The ruler of Toungoo (Sawlu Tinkaya), wanting to go back to Toungoo, feigned sickness. It is said that the Ava ruler considered him a good friend, so he let him go free and travel back to Toungoo laden with gifts and all the regalia the Ava king had bestowed upon him. Others thought releasing him was not wise. They predicted that releasing him would be like releasing a tiger in the forest or a crocodile into the water." When Salu Thinkaya arrived back to Toungoo, he quickly revolted against the Ava king (UKII:59).

Queen Bome and Bayakammatit were staying to the west of Sakut at Mang-set-daw with their forces. The king of Ava sent his son and nephew to subdue them. After subduing them, they brought Queen Bome to the port of Sakut and carried her by boat back to Ava. Bayakammatit was sent back in leg irons. When the boat arrived at Ywa-tei-gyi the king of Ava welcomed her and touching her enquired about her health because she was not well. She replied insultingly “I think I smell a slave." The king had a residence built for her within the walls of the palace.

In 789 (1528) Mohnyin Mintaya king of Ava built a new palace because the old one was getting too old (UKII:60).

In 789 (1428) rulers of Toungoo and Tharawaddy (brothers) strengthen their alliance with the Mon king by sending him their daughters and then requesting him to attack and take Prome. The first Mon attack against the walls of Prome was a failure and they had to retreat to a distance because of all the guns on top of the fortifications (UKII:67).

The Ava king sends ambassadors to the Mon king after he attacks Prome, but the Mon king refuses to meet with them. Eventually, the two kings meet, have a feast, and decide on the boundaries to their kingdoms. The Mon king does not attack Prome again (long period of time, no time for sub-events given in the chronicle!) (UKII:68-70, note that 69 is missing here).

Min-ye-kyaw-swa (1440-3)

Min-ye-kyaw-swa became king of Ava in 1440 (UKII:73)

In 801 (1440) a great war broke out between Kalei and Mohnyin. Ava sent an expedition to intervene. When the expedition arrived to Myedu, the Mohnyin sawbwa was afraid that the Kalei sawbwa would join with the Burmese, so he submitted in advance to the Burmese. When the Kalei sawbwa heard about this, afraid of the combined force of the Burmese and Mohnyin, he also submitted in advance. The Ava king gave these two Shan states to close members of the Burmese royal family to govern (UKII:73).

In 802 (1440) Ava sent a military expedition to subdue Toungoo, Taungdwingyi, Yamethin, and Pinle who were all in revolt. They attacked Pinle first, but they were not able to take the town (climb the walls) because its walls were well-defended, but they did take many buffaloes cows and war captives. Next they attacked Yamethin, but the town was well-defended by Shans so they couldn’t take it either. Next they attacked Taungdwingyi and were able to take it. Then they marched on to Toungoo in the year 804 (1443) and took the city after a pitched battle and elephant duel with the ruler of Toungoo. In 799 (1438) the Mon king overthrew the king of Toungoo and installed a ruler of his choice. In 804 (1443) the king they had installed was killed in battle with Ava forces. His installation by the Mon king was probably seen as an act of revolt and was the reason for the campaign against Pinle, Yamethin, Taungdwin, and Toungoo by Ava (1441-1443) (802-4) (UKII:74).

In 803 (1442) the king of Ava sent the Burmese governors of Mohnyin and Kale to attack Mogaung ruled by To-ngan-bwa. The Mogaung sawbwa had prepared strong defenses with moats and fortifications so the expedition was not immediately successful. During the expedition, the king of Ava died back at Ava and his son-in-law Tihapatei, one of the commanders of the Mogaung expedition, was called back to Ava to assume the throne. He declined the offer because he was not a son or brother of the king. Thi-ha-pa-tei was victorious in Mogaung and To-ngan-bwa was brought back to Ava as a captive with his sons, wives, elephants, and horses (UKII:75-6).

Narapati (1443-69)

According to Harvey, Narapati and his predecessor Min-ye-kyaw-swa:

"...for a time gained Kale and Mohnyin and proceeded to capture the Maw Shan chief Thonganbwa when he was being hard-pressed by the Yunnan government. Narapati refused to surrender him, denied his own liability to tribute, and in 1445 drove off the Yunnan levies at Kaungton in Bhamo district. But when in 1446 they appeared in strength before Ava, he yielded. Thonganbwa committed suicide so only his followers and his body could be given up. The Chinese removed the inside, dried the body in the sun and at the fire, thrust an iron spit through it and took it away. Before returning they assisted the king in reducing Yamethin that was in rebellion. In 1451 they sent him a golden seal as governor of Ava and in 1454 they gave him some Shan territory in return for the surrender of a Mohnyin chief with whose resistance to China he had previously sympathised...In 1468 Narapati was stabbed by his grandson whom he had reproved for a love intrigue with his cousin; the wound was not mortal. The king took fright and fled to Prome....he died at Prome a year later" (Harvey, 99-100).

Narapati became king in 1443 (UKII:76)

Kalei was given to a Burmese to govern. The king of Ava led an expedition north to Pan-pyin ruled by To-khan-bwa ruler of 39 towns who surrendered before they arrived at Wet-ka-pine island (UKII:78).

Arriving back at Ava, the king sent the crown prince to subdue Yamethin and Pinle. The ruler of Yamethin surrendered before they reached the town. Pinle was heavily armed and well-defended. So they could not take the town (UKII:78).

(Chinese Affairs: UKII:80-85, UKII100-102, Arakan: UKII86)

(UKII:80) In 805 (1444) while the Burmese were surrounding Pinle, the Chinese governors (generals) of Yintii, Waatsiin, and Moyi (OathTant Sin). They encamped in Main-maw (Mong Mao of the Mo Shans, Mongmit) and demanded that the king of Ava send them tribute as he had done in the past. The Chinese marched to Bhamo and built a bridge across the Irrawaddy river there.

(Chinese incidents....)

(UKII:85) In 812 (1451) the Burmese governor of Mohnyin died and his son Min-u-tii together with the rulers of Mogaung To-kyaing-bwa To-tok-bwa revolted. The Ava king sent an expedition against Mohnyin to subjugate the town. ("put down revolt" implies armed revolt). Mohnyin was taken quickly and Min-u-tii the governor’s son was executed. The oath of allegiance was administered to the two Shans and they were held in captivity at the capital. Mohnyin was given to To-pok-bwa’s son to rule over.

In 813 (1452) the ruler of Toungoo was assassinated (revolt). A military expedition was sent to Kaungton near Bhamo to the north. When it reached Kata, the newly appointed ruler of Mohnyin, the son of To-bot-bwa, came to pay homage and submit. All his properties wives, and family that were initially taken from him were returned and he was given 300 viss of silver as a gift.

In 820 (1459) the Toungoo king was assassinated by his servant and Toungoo was given to the king of Ava's brother-in-law, the ruler of Taung-dwin to rule over together with Taung-dwin.

In 820 (1459) the Kalei sawbwa Kaung Le Bwa submitted to Ava. The king freed the sawbwa's younger brother, the ruler of Aung who had been taken captive in the past (UKII:88).

(Another rendition of the above: In 820 (1459) the Kalei sawbwa Kaung-le-bwa became the servant (vassal) of the Ava king, submitted to the Ava king, presenting him with gifts and arms and took an oath of allegiance.)

UKII:90 The assassination of the Ava king Narapati by his grandson is a lot like Mingyinyo's usurpation of the Toungoo throne.

Thihathura (1469-81)

According to Harvey:

"He was succeeded by his son Thihathura (1469-81) who allowed his boy to marry the girl for whom he had stabbed his grandfather. The queen dowager was shocked, and instigated Toungoo to revolt. Toungoo called in Pegu, but the king suppressed the rebels. He next had to take Prome, and having done so he pardoned his brother who was lord there....In 1475 the king and Hsipaw raided Yawnghwe, securing its submission. In 1476 he raided Kawliya in Pegu district, and Sithukyawhtin, lord of Toungoo, enlarged his town. The ministers perceived that this meant Toungoo was about to revolt but the king showed them they were wrong by telling him to let himself be dragged by the hair to court; he did so, saying 'It is my king’s command,' but the fact that such loyalty created a sensation shows how little power the ruler of Ava had" (Harvey, 100-101).

(Harvey on Chinese affairs)

Maha-thiha-thura became king of Ava in 1469 (UKII:93). His elder son was made crown prince and given the town of Dipeyin as an appanage. His middle son was married to the one he loved, the daughter of the Sagaing queen, the eldest sister of the king and given the towns of Sakut, Salin, Baunglin, Leh-kaing, Myo-htit, Taungta, Mindon, Tayet, Myede, Kanyin, and Myaung. The youngest son was given Myedu to govern. (list of towns and 5 irrigation districts, better to quote the entirety here, typical divvying up of resources upon becoming king here (UKII:93).

In 832 (1471) Toungoo does not pay tribute and thus enters into revolt. (queen’s request causes them to do this) (UKII:93)

The Ava king sends an expedition against Toungoo. Toungoo requests help from the Mon king. Ava defeats the Mons and Toungoo is given to Sithukyawtin the ruler of Toungoo (UKII:94).

In 837 (1438) Ava sends an expedition against Kawlia near Hlaing in the Mon kingdom of Lower Burma. After taking captives, elephants, and horses they went back to Ava (UKII:96).

In 838 (1477) the ruler of Toungoo Sithukyawhtin) expands the boundaries of Toungoo town which was taken as a sign of impending revolt by some ministers at Ava. Increased within the walls of the settlement probably indicated that there was more area to store provisions, people, and military resources, which would have made it possible to resist a siege for longer. When news of this reached the kings ear Sithu-kyaw-htin, the ruler of Toungoo, is said to have been brought to Ava forcibly by pulling on his hair in a humiliating manner to demonstrate his obedience and loyalty to the Burmese king (UKII:97).

Minkhaung II (1481-1502)

Minkhaung II became king of Ava in 1481 (UKII:103).

In 843 (1482) two brothers, the rulers of Salin and Se as well as the ruler of Yamethin and the five irrigation districts revolted. The king of Ava ordered the ruler of Toungoo Sithu-kyaw-htin to march to Yamethin and the five irrigation districts to put down the revolt. He also ordered up some reinforcements to help him. Sithukyawhtin marched straight to Yamethin and without waiting for the reinforcements from Ava engaged the Yamethin troops in a pitched battle. Sithu-kyaw-htin overcame the first wave of troops sent out of the town walls to meet them but his troops were defeated by the second wave and Sithu-kyaw-htin died in battle. When the reinforcements arrived from Ava, Min-ye-kyaw-swa , the ruler of Yamethin, strengthened the town defenses and resisted from within the town walls, because he thought the Ava troops were too great to engage in pitched battle. The walls of Yamethin were too well-defended with guns to try to scale them. They had to surround the town from a distance. After two months, they were called back to Ava. After Sithu-kyaw-htin’s death at Yamethin in 843 (1482) his son Sithu Nge was appointed governor of Toungoo (UKII:105).

In 844 (1483) a minister advises the king of Ava that Ava faces two threats: Prome and the Shans: "Now, Shans are giving lots of trouble to Myedu and Nga-ra-ne which belong to our territory." This implies that Shan raids on the northern part of Ava’s territory were a continual problem during this period (UKII:106).

In 844 (1483) the king of Prome Min-kyi-swa died and his uncle Thado-min-saw of Tharrawaddy marched to Prome and declared himself king of Prome taking his elder sister-in-law to be his queen. The same year he advanced to Magwe by land and water, an incursion into Ava territory. The Ava immediately sent forces to attack them. When the two sides arrived to Maloon, they encamped there facing each other for one month. In the end, they resolved their dispute, decided not to engage in battle, exchanged gifts and returned home (UKII:106).

In 845 (1484) the ruler of Salin died and a new ruler of Myedu was appointed. In 846 (1485) Yamethin attacked Nyaungyan which was strongly defended by Ava troops. Arriving to Yamethin, they hid in the forest, until under cover of dark after midnight, they left their hiding place and brought down the gates of the city by using an elephant as a battering ram. They took the town of Nyaungyan and after taking captives, elephants, and horses, they appointed a governor, garrisoned the town, and returned to Yamethin. In 847 (1486) a rebellious minister Sithuringatu fled the capital Ava and took refuge with Min-ye-kyaw-swa in Yamethin. The king of Ava sent an expedition against Yamethin. They made assaults against the town walls several times but the walls of the town were well-defended with canons and arms, so when the rainy season was approaching they returned to Ava (UKII:107).

Mingyinyo assassinates Sithu-ngeh in 847 (1484) (UKII:107)


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