Tuesday, May 16, 2006

The first king Mahathammada (UKI:14-33)

The Burmese Chronicle: Book I: 14-33

14 - How the primordial people ate fertile soil among other things and how the foods they ate degenerated as greed and desire arose.

At this time the primordial people ate the raw earth which was imbued with flavor. Some of these people were beautiful in appearance. Some of them were not. Among them, those who were beautiful, looked down on those who were not. The earth they ate lost its flavor, but they continued eating it. Over a long period of time greed and desire increased and the earth they ate disappeared. After it disappeared, a vine whose name was "Padalata," perfect in fragrance and taste, appeared to them and was used as food. As the other foods had disappeared, this vine also disappeared and Thalei rice, beautiful, fragrant, delicious, and perfect in its separation from the husk, appeared to them. At this time the primordial people took the Thalei plant at night for their dinner. They took it in the morning for their breakfast. Though they partook of it in this way, they never had to think of obtaining it, as it came to them of its own accord without having to expend any effort. This Thalei rice, placing itself in a rock bowl, generated fire by itself, and cooked itself. This rice had the same appearance as a jasmine blossom. These people had as much food as they wanted.

As the gods had eaten a special food in the past ("Nat Oza" comparable to ambrosia), this Thalei rice served as food for the primordial people and appeased their hunger. As this food was a delicate food it did not produce feces or urine. When they began to eat Thalei rice excessively it became coarse and rough and produced feces and urine and they acquired the capacity for knowledge and sensation.

15. How after the food eaten in former times had disappeared and Thalei rice was eaten, men and women were created, and sexual relations between them began.

After this, the male and the female came into existence. When man and woman appeared, the woman looked at the man. The man looked at the woman. Because of this looking they became anxious with sexual desire and "Kayathanthaga" also known as sexual relations arose.

16. How the primordial people built houses and lived in them.

The situation being thus, people lived with bad habits that lacked virtue and learned people, perfect in their virtue, looked down on these habits and were troubled by them. In order to cover up these troubling habits, people built houses and lived within the protection of fences.

17. How the primordial people accumulated food.

The situation being like this among those who lived in the primordial world, those who were lazy followed the practice "Deit-nu-kati" and accumulated food for themselves. They adorned themselves with the soft and coarse husks of their Thalei rice but the harvests did not grow. (but there was no increase in the yield at the places where they reaped the rice, or fresh crops are not arriving at the place we harvest them)

18. How the primordial people came to lament their own behavior.

After this the primordial people said to themselves, "In former times we had supernatural powers (Jhana). We lived in a continual state of euphoria, there was plenty of food, and our bodies shined. We could also travel through the sky. During those times we ate the fertile soil and the Padalata vine. This food disappeared because of our misdeeds. After this, Thalei rice appeared of its own accord without having to expend any effort. Now, because we collect this Thalei rice for our morning and afternoon meals, fresh crops are not arriving at the place we harvest them. We should divide what we have into shares and distribute it." After discussing the situation like this they divided the rice into shares and distributed it.

19. How theft among other things appeared during the primordial era.

After this, one self-indulgent person, because he was afraid that his own portion of the food that had been distributed would be exhausted, stole another person's share and ate it. The first and second time it happened they cursed him and let him free. The third time it happened they beat him up and kicked him out of the community. From that time on punishment appeared for theft, slander, and lieing. The primordial people of those days gathered together and had a meeting where they spoke of this.

20. How the primordial people came together and elected the first king (Mahathamada).

"At the present, base and despicable behavior has appeared. Let us denounce those who should be denounced by designating one person perfect in Thila (virtue), Thamadi, and Binnya (knowledge), to govern us. Let us expel those who ought to be expelled. We will each give to him one tenth of our share of Thalei rice.” Speaking thus they spoke of the one person, who had the form of an embryo Buddha, who was endowed with the lesser and greater signs, who was perfect in their great power, strength, and glory, who had both the strength of humility and honor.

After bestowing upon him this title and begging him to accept it, they poured the three sacred offerings of the Beitheik (coronation) over him. The primordial people also designated him "Maha-zanei-na Thammadaw Mahathammadaw" and according to "Wasanatta" named him "Mahathammada." And they also gave him the noble Hkattiya (warrior caste of India) name, according to "Wasanatta," of "Hkitta-nan Adipati Hkattiyaw." And also gave him the royal Yaza name, according ot Wasanatta, of "Dammei-na Thamei-na Thattei Yassei Tii-ti Yaza." Thus the three sacred names appeared. As has been said: "Of the sun king's lineage, perfect in gratitude, of exalted power, the great Thammada king (Maha-thammada-min), has appeared before the eyes of the people, shines with a color which is called glory which is like the shining of a sun king who has ascended this year to do away with all foolishness. The peoples of all the parts into which Mahathammada has divided the world are not fearless enough to go beyond the compass of his law. Among all the kings the Mahathammada king from the very beginning was called "Menu" (person in Pali).

21. How from the primordial people the four types originated.

Being thus, in the country of people, the embryo Buddha miraculously became the first king. At that time there were people who spoke so appropriately of the stealing of other people's things, the telling of lies, slander, and the administering of punishment, of the existing base and despicable situation, the people who were perfect in Thila (virtue), Thamadi, and Binnya (knowledge), in order to eliminate this situation of demerit, built a temple of branches and leaves and lived there. In the villages, hamlets, and in the capital, these virtuous people subsisted on donations of rice (alms). These people who had shunned (abandoned, discarded) the demeritous way of living. The Brahmans, according to Wasanatta, chanted "Akuthalei Dammei Bahi-yanti Bahi-yan Kayontiti Bramana." These people erected houses, worked their fields, and engaged in trade. There were many material things. These people of little glory, who were called Thatei (merchant) or Thakywei (wealthy person), were a source of trouble to others from the very beginning and the situation became one of "Hsin-yei-chin" (poverty). The people in this situation were know as "Thu-hsin-yei" (poor people). The four families (caste, type, race) of "Min" (kings), "Bonna" (priests), "Thatei Thakywei" (merchants and rich people), "Thu-hsin-yei" (the common or poor people) appeared.

22. How the Mahathammada king collected taxes and put together the first law books (Dammathat-kyan).

That primordial king Mahathammada associated and talked with hermits and holy men among other virtuous people and ordered all the outstanding law books (Dammathat kyan-gan) from around the universe to be copied, and according to the law the four sacred "Akati" were not followed, all of this he decided on and directed. At that time the Mahathammada king relied on all the inhabitants of Zambudipa island and they took care of him. Of those material things that they got from their work, they offered the Mahathammada king one portion in ten, from ten branches one branch, from ten fruits one fruit, and from ten blossoms one blossom. There were many things that were offered and they again named him "Khattiya Maha-thala." This king abided by the ten laws of kings and the four Thin-gyou (compendium of Abhidhamma) and thus experienced the well-being of a king. After this first Mahathammada king there were 63,000 more umbrella bearing kings of states (Tain, Khayain) on the surface of (in the lands of) Zambudipa born after this.

23. How during the Andara Kat things were destroyed and then recreated and how the second Mahathammmada king was elected (ascended) to the throne.

During the first Kat as time went on, the life span of men declined (ebbed, waned) so that people lived for only 10 years. During this period of time when people lived for only ten years greed became widespread. Then the Dobikhandara Kat arose and people starved and died (died of hunger). In order to wash away the bones of the dead there was a torrent of rain which quickly carried away the bones and (as well as) cleaning and purifying the earth. From that time there were other rains, a fragrant rain and a rain of flowers, that fell (rained down) covering the whole the earth. After this, bracelets for the wrists and the ankles as well as other ornaments that men wear as well as rosary beads and ear plugs and other ornaments and jewels that women wear, rained down and the earth was lovely to behold (pleasing to the eye, comely, becoming). And this time those who were learned and perfect in their virtue came out from their hiding places and adorned themselves with these ornaments and in wearing them enjoyed themselves and were content. The remaining people (by means of) with habits that were comparatively better in virtue (Thadda, Thila) than their predecessors, had children, grandchildren, and great grandchildren who lived for progressively longer periods of time of 10, 20, 40, 80, hundreds, thousands, tens of thousands, hundreds of thousands, millions, and (up to) even as much as billions of years. These people with extremely long life spans forgetting virtue (Thadda, Thila) and not acting according to the law, came to follow the way of greed and desire and lived hurried lives full of disputes as before. Those people to whom all this had happened, the inhabitants of Zambudipa island gathered together and talked and elected one person perfect in virtue (Thadda, Thila) to be their king. After this second Mahathammada king, there were all together 63,000 umbrella bearing kings of states (Hkayain, Tain).

24. How in the manner described above things were destroyed and recreated and the third Mahathammada king was elected.

From the time of that Mahathammada king after a long period of time all the people forgot what virtue was (Thadda, Thila) and because they lived in a lawless manner, the lifespan (lives) of these people progressively declined. They all lived for ten years. During the era (Kat) of these people who lived for 10 years, anger increased in their characters. Because of this great anger, holding (grasping, grabbing) the wooden arms of their grinders or the bolts of their doors (??), and they made daggers, swords and spears with sharp edges studded with spikes and barbs. When they saw each other they thought of each other as they think of fishes or animals, and through pushing and shoving and hacking and chopping they died. In this Thattandara Kat (era), to wash away the bones of the dead, great rains poured down. Fragrant rains, rains of flowers, and rains of ornaments rained down as before. People of knowledge and acumen, perfect in virtue, who had hidden themselves and avoided the community of other people, left their hiding places. Adorning themselves with these ornaments, and because they lived according to good habits, became perfect in virtue (Thila, Thadda), and their sons, grandsons, great grandsons, great great grandsons, and great great great grandsons, had progressively longer lifespans, living for many years. These people who lived for many years, after a long period of time forgot what virtue (Thila, Thadda), with increasing greed and desire, led hurried existences full of arguing (argumentation, disputes, disputation) as they had before (in former times). At that time the inhabitants of Zambudipa island gathered together and talked. (discussed the situation) and elected for the third time a king perfect in virtue (Thila. Thadda)

25. How as was described above things were destroyed and recreated and the fourth Mahathammada king ascended the throne.

After this Mahathammada king was elected for the third time and ruled as an umbrella bearing king over 63,000 other kings (tributary kings). Starting from this Mahathamada king lawlessness arose once more amongst the people and their lives became progressively shorter and shorter so that they only lived for 10 years. The character of these people who lived for 10 years was to speak in ignorance. They suffered during the Yoganda Kat and died. [The lifespan of people (mankind) rose and fell like this 64 times and then there was the Wiwintawi Kat.] For the fourth time a Mahathamada King arose and as an umbrella bearing king there were 84,000 states and countries under him. (?)

26. A description of the occurrence of the fifth Kat and from the fifth Mahathamada king up until the Eika-dathama eleventh Mahathamada king during which there were eleven Kats.

The fifth umbrella bearing Mahathamada king had 84,000 tributary states. The sixth umbrella bearing Mahathamada king had 40,000 tributary states. The seventh umbrella bearing Mahathamada king had 44,000 tributary states. The eighth umbrella bearing Mahathamada king had 40.000 tributary states. The ninth umbrella bearing Mahathamada king had 44,000 tributary states. The tenth umbrella bearing Mahathamada king had 44,000 tributary states. The eleventh umbrella bearing Mahathamada king had 189,000 towns, 9,900,000 villages, 9,600,000 harbors on the surface of Zampudeik. People lived a countless number of years and then as the world once more waned and declined there 64 Mahathamada kings. During the Mayntet Kat there was no king.

27. How during the reign of eleven Mahathamada kings references were made to the Tripitaka.

Out of the next 64 Mahathamada kings there were first eleven of them and then after that there were 63 Mahathamada kings and the exalted teachers (scholars) gifted in the Tripitaka they pondered over (considered) the two sacred faculties of reason (???) and relying on (depending on) and they took refuge in directing the composition of the treatises dealing with the Buddha's life on earth. Know this. (???). After this, after the Mahathamada kings, states and countries arose on the surface of Zampudeik and the water receded and the royal chronicle of kings was written (adapted).

28. How on the earth four Buddhas one by one attained enlightenment.

On this earth five Buddhas attained enlightenment and after four of them had attained enlightenment the cycle of Kats came to an end and those who attained enlightenment were as follows. During the reign of the eighth Mahathamada king when the world was in decline people normally lived for 40,000 years and the Kakuthan Buddha attained enlightenment. During the reign of the ninth Mahathamada king when the world was in decline people normally lived for 30,000 years and the Kawnakon Buddha attained enlightenment. During the reign of the tenth Mahathamada king when the world was in decline people normally lived for 20,000 years and the Kathaba Buddha attained enlightenment. During the reign of the eleventh Mahathamada king when the world was in decline people normally lived for 100 years and the Gawtama Buddha attained enlightenment. Then Lord Dewadat created dissension (a schism) and he preached of the Awisi ring of hell: "There are six parts to this world and in one part especially there is dissension (has broken away from the others). The five parts (groups) will undergo (enter) Awisi and then be freed entirely from Awisi and then will become Atitharabapissaka Buddhas," he preached according to the scripture and this was the belief of learned people.

29. How the eleventh Mahathamada king governed.

When the eleventh Mahathamada king to mount the throne became king, saintly hermits and other learned men perfect in Jhana and supernatural knowledge (Abinyan) compared (texts?) and discussed (what they found?) and then in order to fulfil his wish that all the royal slaves of Zampudeik should prosper he prepared law books (Dhammathat Kyans).

From this time on, so that thieves, bandits, and murderers and other rebellious people would not bother people around towns he erected the seven elements of a strong town, moats and walls with catwalks around them and banquettes (guard stations?) at intervals, and perfect in the four sources of food for towns he established the country of Mala, the Kingdom of Kuthawadi, the country of Magada also known as the kingdom of Yazakyo, and the country of Wideha also known as the kingdom of Meikthila and appointed great soldiers perfect in the eight characteritics, royal couriers perfect in the eight characteristics, along with judges that did not follow the four Akatis (?) and thus he made decisions and directed the affairs of his kingdom. This king following (in accordance with) the ten characteristics of kings, the seven laws that prevent the disappearance of peaceful village life (Aparihaniya), according to the astrological laws that determine the course of the lives of kings he worked during the entire course of the countless years of his life for prosperity of himself the exalted king, the prosperity that cames from an unbroken royal line of sons, grandsons, and great grandsons, he worked in this manner for the prosperity of all the people of the kingdom.

30. How starting from this Mahathamada king his sons, grandsons, and great grandsons formed a royal line of 28 kings (for 28 generations).

Starting from this Mahathamada king during the lives of his sons, grandsons, and great grandsons the names of the kings were as follows: the son of the Mahathamada king was named King Yawza, King Yawza's son was named King Warayawza, King Warayawza's son was named King Kalyana, King Kalyana's son was named King Warakalyana, the son of King Warakalyana was named King Ubothada, and the son of King Ubothada was named King Mandat. [This King Mandat was a prior reincarnation of the Gotama Buddha. Regarding this Mandat Thagya King there were 2000 minor servants (slaves) and four principle servants who served him, he governed two levels of the kingdom of Nats, and he lived for 1,300,000 years and ruled as king for 5,252,000 years.] King Wara who was the son of King Mandat King Wara, as well as his son King Upawara, as well as his son King Zediya, as well as his son King Pissila, as well as his son King Mahapissila, as well as his son King Missileinda, as well as his son King Thagara, as well as his son King Thagaradeiwa, as well as his son King Barata, as well as his son King Ingira, as well as his son King Yusi, as well as his son King Thuyusi, as well as his son King Bataba, as well as his son King Mahabataba, as well as his son King Banada, as well as his son King Mahabanada, as well as his son King Thudathana, as well as his son King Mahathudathana, as well as his son King Neiyu, as well as his son King Mahaneiyu, as well as his son King Issima (Seinda).

From this time on, so that thieves, bandits, and murderers and other rebellious people would not bother people around towns he erected the seven elements of a strong town, moats and walls with catwalks around them and banquettes (guard stations?) at intervals, and perfect in the four sources of food for towns he established the country of Mala, the Kingdom of Kuthawadi, the country of Magada also known as the the kingdom of Yazakyo, and the country of Wideha also known as the kingdom of Meikthila and appointed great soldiers perfect in the eight characteritics, royal couriers perfect in the eight characteristics, along with judges that did not follow the four Akatis (?) and thus he made decisions and directed the affairs of his kingdom. This king following (in accordance with) the ten characteristics of kings, the seven laws that prevent the disappearance of peaceful village life (Aparihaniya), according to the astrological laws that determine the course of the lives of kings he worked during the entire course of the countless years of his life for prosperity of himself the exalted king, the prosperity that cames from an unbroken royal line of sons, grandsons, and great grandsons, he worked in this manner for the prosperity of all the people of the kingdom.

30. How starting from this Mahathamada king his sons, grandsons, and great grandsons formed a royal line of 28 kings (for 28 generations).

Starting from this Mahathamada king during the lives of his sons, grandsons, and great grandsons the names of the kings were as follows: the son of the Mahathamada king was named King Yau za, King Yawza's son was named King Warayawza. King Warayawza's son was named King Kalyana, King Kalyana's son was named King Warakalyana, the son of King Warakalyana was named King Ubothada, and the son of King Ubothada was named King Mandat. [This King Mandat was a prior reincarnation of the Gotama Buddha. Regarding this Mandat Thagya King there were 2000 minor servants (slaves) and four principle servants who served him, he governed two levels of the kingdom of Nats, and he lived for 1,300,000 years and ruled as king for 5,252,000 years.] King Wara who was the son of King Mandat King Wara, as well as his son King Upawara, as well as his son King Zediya, as well as his son King Pissila, as well as his son King Mahapissila, as well as his son King Missileinda, as well as his son King Thagara, as well as his son King Thagaradeiwa, as well as his son King Barata, as well as his son King Ingira, as well as his son King Yusi, as well as his son King Thuyusi, as well as his son King Bataba, as well as his son King Mahabataba, as well as his son King Banada, as well as his son King Mahabanada, as well as his son King Thudathana, as well as his son King Mahathudathana, as well as his son King Neiyu, as well as his son King Mahaneiyu, as well as his son King Issima (Seinda).

Starting from the Mahathamada king these 28 kings as we have spoken of (?) the royal line continued on through the Mahathamada's sons, grandsons, and great grandsons. And these 28 kings ruled over the three great kingdoms: the state of Malla also known as the kingdom of Kuthawadi, the state of Magada also known as the kingdom of Yazakyaw, and the state of Wideha also known as the kingdom of Meikthila.

31. About the royal line of the Mahathamada king starting from King Issima and continueing on through his sons, grandsons, and great grandsons.

This King Issima continuing on through his hundreds of sons, grandsons, and great grandsons who in turn were kings all ruled over the great kingdom of Kuthawadi. Among these hundreds of kings the last of them was King Areinda. The sons, grandsons, and great grandsons of king Areinda who were all told 56 kings ruled over the great kingdom of Ayoza. Among these 56 kings the last of them was named King Dobbathaha. Among the sons, grandsons, and great grandsons of King Dobbathaha there were all told 60 kings and his son was King Okkakarit.

32. The life story of the great king Okkakarit
(More family relations)

33. How the sons and daughters of King Okkakarit together accompanied with soldiers set out and founded the kingdom of Kapilawut.

The great king called his four sons and issued the following order to them. "While I have many sons the queen who is the mother of the youth Zandu has asked me repeatedly to make her son king, so given he this. Because I realize that if all my sons live w ith me there will be danger, I've ordered that you be given auspicious horses, elephants, and chariots. Take as many horses, elephants, and chariots as you want (take as many as you want) and go to another place. From the time that I no longer am (no 1onger exist) one of you will be made king." Having issued an order in this fashion his four sons payed reverence to him and he requested that the five queens who were their mothers follow them. Their father the king presented them with eight ministers and then together with their sisters the king sent them all off. the people of the kingdom followed the sons and daughters of their lord for three entire days without stop. The troops that followed them were three Yuzanas wide (38.17 miles). When the princes saw all the soldiers that were following them, they said to themselves that this was enough to form countries for many kings. What benefit is their in one of us taking the country of another one for himself?

Namo tatha bagawadaw arahadaw thamathampuditha.

Without any rival or likeness among all the inhabitants of the three abodes of gods, animals, and men, smashing to smithereens Dewabodda and the other numerous members of that (five member or type) group of devils that cavort at the top of the world and then worshipping before all else with (dwaya) body, words, and mind, the omnsicient Buddha lord of all the conquerors of the top of the world, followed by the ten members of the Mahathamada line of kings. Starting from the Eikadathama Mahathamada king up until ... there were all together 334, 569 in the first part. After the first part starting from the Azatathat king until king Dammadhoka there were 29 exalted (noble kings. of the second part of the royal line. King Azatathat held his coronation and then after eight years he acheived the Parinibbana state of a lord Buddha. After he had acheived the state of Parinibbana he enjoyed the earthly pleasure of a king for 24 years. After (all told) having enjoyed the earthly pleasure of a king for 31 years he was asses nated by his son Udayabadda ho became king in the Buddhist Thakkareit year of 24.

1 Comments:

Blogger Alexey Kirichenko said...

Dear Jon,

it's great to see your postings but imho you should check your translations with someone. At times you make absolutely crazy mistakes (especially in the introduction). The most funny I've noticed is that you'd confused "anus and urethra" with "capacity for knowledge and sensation". Hope you won't be offended by my criticism.

12:49 AM  

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